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Description
Shusui
(Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)
Quick Care FactsCare Level: Moderate
Temperament: Peaceful
Maximum Size: 28 - 40"
Minimum Pond Size: 500 gallons
Water Conditions: 55-79° F, 34-85° F temporary water conditions
Diet: Omnivore
Origin: Japan, selectively bred carp
Family: Cyprinidae
Species: Koi, Nishikigoi/錦鯉 (Japanese)
Aquarium Type: Pond
Shusui Coloration and Characteristics
Shusui, meaning "autumn water" in Japanese, are the Doitsu or mirror-scaled cousin of the Asagi Koi. They were developed by cross breeding the Asagi Koi with the common German mirror carp, which resulted in the first Doitsu scaled Koi breed. Doitsu is the Japanese word for Germany and is applied to Koi that have been cross bred with the German mirror carp. The resulting fish like the German mirror carp itself have only a single row of larger scales on the top of the back and are scale-less over the rest of the body.
Similar to the Asagi, Shusui hi (red) should be symmetrical and a rusty red in color. Ideally the hi (red) should stay above the lateral line and be present only on the sides of the head or not on the head at all. Also the pectoral fins should be either white in color, or have a small amount of hi (red) near where the pectoral fin connects to the body.
As with Asagi, a clear head is very desirable for Shusui as well. Rather than the pure white being preferred over all else, the proper head pattern is determined by the pattern of the red and blue on the body of the Koi. Hi Shusui are specimens whose hi (red) extends up over the back, so that the two contrasting colors are the red of the hi and dark blue of the mirror scales. Hana Shusui (Hana meaning flower in Japanese) also have more red than normal, but here it is in the form of an extra band between the lateral line and dorsal fin, with a break in between. In the best examples, the hi is laid out in a wavy pattern to give a flowery effect.
The following traits are essential for quality Shusui Koi specimens:
  • The color distribution is essentially the same as in the Asagi, but because there are no normal scales to give an overall reticulated effect, the smooth, sky-blue back is instead highlighted by the Doitsu scaling.
  • In good examples, these armored scales form a regular pattern on the shoulders of the Koi and then run in two lines on either side of the dorsal fin, returning to a single line towards the tail. Another line is usually present along each flank, roughly following the lateral line.
  • The most common fault on a Shusui is a messy shoulder scale pattern that lacks symmetry. Rogue scales can appear elsewhere on the body, further devaluing the Koi.
  • Also like the Asagi, the Shusui can sometimes have a slight bluish tint to the white area on the head of the fish. While this is not as desirable as a pure white, it is not a major flaw in this breed.
Koi Care & Pond Design
Caring for and keeping Koi is tightly tied to the pond in which they live, as the keys to successful Koi keeping revolve around water quality, proper filtration & aeration, quality food and protection from predators. First things first when keeping Koi and that is simply that they get big and need a pond to match. Depending on the number of Koi one plans to keep they need to build a pond that is up to the task of keeping a group of 24" to 30" on average fish that can reach a body mass nearing 30 lbs! While bigger is better, a few rules that will provide a good minimum starting point for an adequate Koi pond include the pond being at least 4 times the length of an adult Koi and 3 times the width, with a depth of around 3 feet. While modern filtration can keep fish alive in very small amounts of water, some reasonable swimming space is required for such large fish and they need some depth to be able to regulate their temperature by swimming closer or further from the surface of the water depending on temperature.
Koi like their common carp ancestors are a cold water fish capable of living in temperatures ranging from the mid 35° F to 84° F they are considered a hardy fish species. However, Koi do not do well if kept at extremely warm or cold water temperatures for long periods of time. They prefer water temperatures ranging from 50° F to 78° F (10° C - 25° C), where they are in ponds that are deep enough for them to regulate their body temperature as they see fit by swimming higher or lower within the pond. The exact ideal depth for a pond depends greatly on the climate where the pond is built, warmer climates can have ponds as shallow as 3 feet in depth, where colder climates will need at least 5 feet deep areas to allow the fish to survive cold winters.
While Koi are fairly hardy fish in general they are selectively bred over hundreds of years for color and pattern, which has made them less hardy than their native carp cousins. Koi are especially sensitive to low oxygen levels and high levels of nitrate in the water. Therefore, proper pond filtration is critical to maintaining high quality water which is crucial to Koi health and longevity. Proper Koi pond filtration should provide high levels of dissolved oxygen, excellent mechanical, biological and chemical filtration and provide parasite control via a UV sterilizer. Partial water changes or the use of plants as a vegetable filter should be used in order to export or remove nitrate from building up in the water.
Second only to the pond design and water quality, Koi need high quality foods that provide them a mix of meaty and plant based food items that will provide a balanced and nutritional diet. Koi should be fed different foods or not at all based on the water temperature and time of year. In the Spring and Fall where water temperatures are between 55° F - 68° F (12° C - 20° C) Koi should be fed foods lower in protein and more easily digestible. When water temperatures are above 68° F or 20° C, then can be fed higher protein foods.
The pond design is also critical in terms of protecting Koi from predators and harsh water temperatures. Ponds that have gradual sloping sides and are shallow in depth allow predators to easily wade into the pond and feed on the Koi within. Also shallow ponds, especially those without shade provided by pond structures or overhead vegetation make it difficult for Koi to avoid the intense sun and high water temperatures during summer months. Koi ponds should have sheer edges that drop down quickly to 2 to 3 feet in depth to deter predators and should have areas of the pond that are deep enough to avoid predators and excessive winter or summer water temperature extremes.
Feeding
Koi being bred from Carp are an omnivorous fish species, who with their down turned mouths typically eat food items that they scavenge for on the bottom of their natural pond, lake or river homes. However, as Koi are selectively bred in captivity and raised in well maintained ponds, they have adapted to eating food from the surface of the water and will readily consume a wide variety of commercial floating foods designed for Koi.
Many Koi keepers prefer to feed their fish at the surface of the water as it allows them to bond with the fish by training them to hand feed and gives them a chance to inspect the fish for any signs of disease or any wounds brought on from pond predators like raccoons, herons or foxes.
Koi will readily consume a wide variety of natural foods in addition to balanced commercial Koi foods, these include: lettuce, watermelon, peas, oranges, squash and fresh seafoods like prawns, shrimp, scallops, squid, chopped fish, mussels, etc. as long as it is fresh and not pre-cooked or preserved in any way.
Koi should be fed different foods or not at all based on the water temperature and time of year. In the Spring and Fall where water temperatures are between 55°F - 68°F (12°C - 20°C) Koi should be fed foods lower in protein and more easily digestible. When water temperatures are above 68°F or 20°C, then can be fed higher protein foods. In the Winter when water temperatures are below 50°F or 10°C, the digestive system of the Koi will slow nearly to a halt and they should not be fed directly, they may nibble a little on plants and algae, but won't need direct feeding.
Feeding Koi when the water temperature is below 50°F or 10°C runs the risk that any food eaten may not be fully digested and will rot inside the gut of the fish causing illness and possibly cause the Koi to die.
Breeding
Koi, just like standard Carp when bred naturally will spawn in the Spring and early Summer. Spawning is initiated by the male who will begin following the female about the pond, swimming right up behind her and nudging her repeatedly. After the female Koi is stimulated and releases her eggs, they will sink to vegetation, spawning mobs or even rocks or gravel on the bottom of the pond. The male will release sperm into the water and the eggs will become fertilized and begin developing. Although the female produces large numbers of eggs, many of the fry do not survive due to being eaten by other Koi or because they are not properly fertilized. On average if the egg survives it will hatch in around 4-7 days.
Most pond keepers looking to spawn their Koi will use mop heads or specialized Koi breeding mops in order to be able to control where the eggs are hatched. Since Koi will produce thousands of offspring, of which only a small percentage will carry the proper coloration and pattern necessary to be considered Nishikigoi or Koi. The rest of the offspring will be brown, black, grey or mottled in color and have little to no real color pattern. Professional Koi breeders will cull these undesirable offspring and only raise up the fish that show the desired coloration and pattern.
Nurturing and culling the resulting offspring or "fry" as they are known is a time consuming and tedious job, typically only done by professional Koi breeders or farms. The difficulty in raising quality Koi is in the continual process of feeding, sorting and culling the fry for months on end, while also needing to continually move desirable fish to new and larger holding ponds as they are grown out. Koi breeding at a minimum requires maintaining multiple grow out ponds, having many different types of foods on hand (including live or frozen foods) and performing sorting and culling duties every few weeks for the first year or up to about 6 inches in size. The resulting "Tosai" or yearling Koi will vary in quality from lower pond grade all the way to varying levels of high quality Koi.
While quality parent fish, high quality water conditions and foods provide reproductive advantages for Koi breeders, the semi-randomized results of the Koi reproductive process means that it is possible to get a favorable result even for novice breeders. Additionally the variability in the reproductive process allows for new varieties of Koi to be developed within a relatively few number of generations.
Additional Photos