Categories
Bubble Coral
(Plerogyra sp.) Easy Aggressive Low to Medium Bottom Moderate White, Yellow, Pink, Red Calcium, Strontium,Trace Elements 72-78° F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4; dKH 8-12 Indo-Pacific Caryophylliidae LPS Hard Corals Bubble Corals are both unique and attractive in their appearance. With both attractive colors and a unique bubble like appearance they provide a stark contrast to many other Indo-Pacific LPS corals. They have a white-ridged hard skeleton that can be seen only when the polyps are deflated. When inflated, the large skin like polyps will cover the entire coral skeleton, giving this species a white, yellowish or pink coloration. Like many other LPS corals, this species posses sweeper tentacles that can harm other near by corals, making it important to think about the position and placement in the aquarium. Bubble Corals require moderate lighting levels combined with low to moderate water flow to flourish in the home aquarium. Too much water flow will prevent the coral from fully expanding its fleshly polyps. These polyps are very fragile and will puncture easily, thus it is very important to handle these corals with the utmost care and only by the hard skeletal base. Because Bubble Corals have long sweeper tentacles, be sure to place them in a location that will provide plenty of room between themselves and other species to prevent damage being done to its neighbors. As with most corals the Bubble Coral will benefit from the addition of calcium, strontium and other trace elements added periodically to the water. Bubble Corals utilize the symbiotic algae zooxanthellae from which it receives the majority of its nutrition through photosynthesis. They also benefit from occasional feedings of meaty items; such as, brine shrimp or micro-plankton. They should be offered food when the tentacles are fully expanded, which is typically during the night time hours. As with most corals the Bubble Coral will benefit from the addition of calcium, strontium and other trace elements added periodically to the water.
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Hammer Coral
(Euphyllia parancora) Moderate Aggressive Medium Bottom Medium Green, Brown, Tan Calcium, Strontium, Trace elements 72-78º F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Indo-Pacific Caryophylliidae LPS Hard Corals The Hammer Coral, Branched is a large polyp stony (LPS) coral and often referred to as Hammer Coral, Euphyllia Coral or Anchor Coral. Its common names are derived from the appearance of its hammer or anchor-shaped tentacles. Its polyps are visible throughout the day and night and hide this species skeletal base. Hammer Corals may be green, tan, or brown in color, with lime green or yellow tips on the ends of its tentacles that glow under actinic lighting. Some varieties may be branched which makes them look similar to a Torch Coral (E. glabrescens). This species can be moderately difficult to maintain as it requires very good water conditions to thrive, and is recommended for experienced or advanced hobbyists. In the aquarium environment the Hammer Coral will require moderate lighting combined with medium water movement and excellent overall water quality. Care should be exercised in placing this species as its sweeper tentacles can extend around six inches at night. The sweeper tentacles of the Hammer Coral will sting any other corals or animals that it comes in contact with. Therefore, allow plenty of room between the Hammer Coral and its closest neighbors, keeping in mind the total amount of space required due to its sweeper tentacles. For on going good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. The Hammer Coral will benefit from additional food fed weekly in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp and for continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water.
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Acan Coral
(Acanthastrea echinata) Easy Aggressive Medium Bottom to Middle Moderate Orange, Red, Purple, Blue, Pink Calcium, Strontium, Trace Elements 72-80° F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4; dKH 8-12 Indo-Pacific Mussidae LPS Hard Corals Acan Corals (Acanthastrea echinata) have become extremely popular within the reef aquarium hobby due to their bright striped color combinations and ease of care. They are generally widely available and are sold under multiple common names including: Acan Coral, Acan Brain Coral, Acanthastrea Coral or simply Acans. Acan Corals are available in an extensive variety of vivid color combinations and patterns, which allows reef hobbyists to inject any desired colors into their reef tank. Beyond simply boasting amazing colors, Acan Corals are also very hardy and adapt quickly to the reef aquarium environment. They will tolerate a fairly wide range of water conditions and once acclimated are known for their rapid growth rates. Acan Corals have only moderate lighting and water flow requirements that consist of moderate lighting intensity and medium amounts of indirect water flow. While Acan Corals are perfect for beginning reef hobbyists, they are also highly sought after by advanced reef hobbyists for the splash of color they bring to even the most established reef aquarium system. Whether a beginning or advanced reef hobbyist with anything from a nano reef to large reef system, the Acan Coral is right at home. Their modest care requirements and brilliant coloration make the Acan Coral the perfect addition to almost any reef aquarium. While they are easy to care for and have modest care requirements, there are some specific requirements for keeping Acan Corals. First off is placement, Acan Corals need to be kept at least a couple of inches from any neighboring corals. This is because the Acan Coral is an aggressive species that will fight for its position on the reef. They can extend their stomachs out onto neighboring corals in order to attack them, which they will do in order to acquire more room to grow. Secondly, Acan Corals need medium, indirect water flow in order to both provide filter feeding opportunities and to remove waste products from the coral. This is best achieved through the use of a wave maker or through alternating powerheads that create laminar water flow within the aquarium. Lastly, Acan Corals need proper lighting in order to provide feeding opportunities via the zooxanthellae algae hosted within their body. The catch here is that unlike other corals that receive most of their nutrition this way, the Acan Coral only utilizes photosynthesis for a portion of their nutrition. This effectively means that they only need moderate lighting intensity and will bleach out or die if over exposed to intense lighting. It is for this reason that Acan Corals are best placed in the lower to middle areas of the average reef aquarium, where lighting levels are substantial but not as intense as the upper portions of the reef. Acan Corals receive a portion of their nutrition through photosynthesis from the zooxanthellae algae that they host within their body. However for long term health and faster growth they will need filter feeding opportunities. Well established larger reef aquariums will often have zooplankton present in the water column that the Acan Coral can filter and consume, or hobbyists can target feed them with foods designed for filter feeding invertebrates. Ideal target feeding foods include Cyclopeeze and MicroVert or ZooPlex from Kent Marine. Acans can be fed every other day for rapid growth, but typically only need to be fed twice a week for normal sustained growth. Target feeding is best performed by mixing the coral food in tank water in a separate container, then using a turkey baster or target feeding device to shoot the solution directly onto the coral. The Acan Coral will sense the food in the water around them and catch it with tentacles that they extend into the water column. Once the food is attached to the tentacle, it will be retracted back to the mouth of the coral and consumed. It is often suggested that Acan Corals be fed during nighttime hours; however, this is not necessary since acclimated Acan Corals will readily feed at any time of the day. Keep in mind that specimens that are newly added to the aquarium will often not eat for a few weeks, which is completely normal. Once they are fully acclimated and settled into their new environment they will begin feeding.
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Pineapple Brain Coral
(Favites spp.) Easy Aggressive Medium Any Moderate Brown, Cream, Green, Orange, Yellow Calcium, Strontium, Trace Elements 72-78° F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4; dKH 8-12 Indo-Pacific Faviidae LPS Hard Corals The Favites Corals are large polyp stony (LPS) corals often referred to as Moon, Pineapple, Brain, Closed Brain, Star, Worm, or Honeycomb Coral. They are the most common and prolific coral in the world, and are very similar to the genus Favia, sharing many of the same common names, and sometimes being very difficult to differentiate. Favites Corals are found in various color forms and polyp shapes. "Pineapple Coral" is the name commonly given to those that have smaller circular patterns with a tan-ish brown outer ridges and vibrant green inner crevices. Favite Corals are aggressive, expanding their sweeper tentacles at night well beyond their base. It is important to leave space between them and neighbors in the reef aquarium, so that other corals are not stung by the sweeper tentacles. Maintenance for the Favite Corals (Pineapple Brain Coral) is relatively easy, making them excellent choices for both beginner and expert hobbyist. They require only moderate lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. While they do not require high intensity lighting, Pineapple Brain Corals should be given full spectrum lighting usually 6500K with Actinic Blue combination and they will also do fine with more intense lighting systems. Water movement should be moderate, they should not be subjected to any direct continuous current. To maintain Pineapple Brain Corals in good health, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements should be added to the water. They will also benefit from the addition of supplemental meaty foods in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp. They should be fed twice per week in the evening while the tentacles are visible.
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Frogspawn Coral
(Euphyllia paradivisa) Moderate Aggressive Medium Low Medium to High Tan, Beige, Green, Red Calcium, Strontium, Trace elements 72-78º F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Indo-Pacific Caryophylliidae LPS Hard Corals The Frogspawn Coral is a large polyp stony (LPS) coral, that goes by many names within the hobby including Wall, Octopus, Grape, or Torch Coral. This coral get its common name from the polyps that resemble frog eggs, thus the name Frogspawn Coral. Frogspawn coral look essentially the same either day or night, as their polyps remain visible despite the lighting conditions. During the night hours, the Frogspawns sweeper tentacles will extend approximately 6 to 8 inches beyond the base of the coral in search of food. It is important not to place other corals within this range so that they are not stung by the Frogspawns tentacles. This species is moderately difficult to maintain, but despite this fact, it is a popular coral within the marine aquarium hobby. Under the care of an intermediate to advanced reef aquarist, this species will thrive under the proper conditions. It requires medium to high lighting levels combined with a medium water movement within the aquarium. For continued good health, it will also require the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water. The symbiotic algae zooxanthellae hosted within its body provides the majority of its nutritional requirements from photosynthesis. It will also benefit from additional food in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp.
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Flowerpot Coral
(Goniopora sp.) Difficult Aggressive Medium Bottom to Middle Moderate Red, Purple, Pink, Tan, Green Calcium, Strontium, Magnesium, Trace Elements 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.023-1.025 Indo-Pacific Poritidae LPS Hard Corals The Flowerpot Coral (Goniopora sp.) is a common name applied to a variety of Goniopora and Alveopora corals found throughout the Indo-Pacific. While there are many distinct species of Goniopora and Alveopora, this profile is intended to cover the basics that are common to all varieties. Goniopora is a species of large polyp stony (LPS) coral that forms branching colonies with polyps that always have 24 tentacles, with both the disc and tentacle tips having colors that range from purple, pink and red to tan and green. The Polyps are long and fleshy and the tentacles are normally extended both day and night. Alveopora are also a species of large polyp stony (LPS) coral that forms branching colonies with polyps that always have 12 tentacles instead of 24. Beyond simply a difference in appearance, Alveopora sp. species have been found to do better in the aquarium environment than Goniopora sp. species; however, both types should be considered advanced or expert level corals to keep. In addition to Alveopora sp. species being more hardy in the aquarium environment, hobbyists have also found that red and purple Flowerpot Corals do better than tan or green specimens. The exact reason for this is not currently known; however, the anecdotal evidence has been consistent amongst many reef hobbyists. It was thought for many years that Goniopora and Alveopora corals did poorly in the aquarium environment because of a lack of lighting intensity. However, modern high intensity lighting systems have had little to no effect on successfully keeping Flowerpot Corals. Hobbyists have since learned that the difficulty in keeping these corals is more in the unique combination of aquarium conditions that are required for long term growth and prosperity. More specifically the combination of water chemistry, water flow, lighting, filter feeding opportunities and direct targeted feedings. Flowerpot Corals need moderately intense lighting in order for the zooxanthellae they host to thrive; however, they do not need the high intensity of light provided in many modern reef aquariums. It is for this reason that most hobbyists with highly intense lighting place their Flowerpot Coral in a lower middle to bottom location on the reef. Water flow should be moderate in strength with varied, turbid or laminar flow, which is typically created by a wave box, alternating powerheads or by placing the coral in an area of the tank that receives varied water flow. Ideally the water flow should be sufficient to remove waste products generated by the coral, while still allowing the coral filter feeding opportunities from zooplankton and other foods present in the water column. Water chemistry is also crucial for the the Flowerpot Coral in order to ensure proper skeletal growth and development. Hobbyists should utilize quality reef salt and reef supplements in order to provide proper calcium levels, magnesium and trace elements, which are all crucial to calcium based hard coral skeletal structures. Lastly, Gonioporas will require regular targeted feedings of meaty foods like cyclopeeze or baby brine shrimp. Some very established reef aquariums with large refugiums may be able to provide enough water column filter feeding opportunities for Goniopora and Alveopora corals to thrive; however, most hobbyists will find that regular targeted feedings are necessary for the coral to survive and thrive within the aquarium environment. Reef building hard corals like the Flowerpot Coral require proper calcium carbonate levels in the aquarium in order to build their skeletal structures. They are made up of tiny animals with a tubular body and an oral gap fringed with tentacles. These tentacle polyps are equipped with nematocysts (poisonous cells used to sting prey), which they use to feed on small marine organisms ranging in size from zooplankton to very small fish. Much of the energy requirements of the coral are provided by photosynthetic organisms that live in its tissue, called zooxanthellae. Zooxanthellae supply the coral polyps with oxygen and food, and are responsible for the color of the corals In return, the corals provide a protected living area for the zooxanthellae. However, Flowerpot Corals also require additional feedings of larger meaty foods like cyclopeeze or baby brine shrimp. In most cases, target feeding of the Flowerpot Coral will be required to insure that they receive adequate nutrition. Since the Flowerpot Coral is slow to feed and often out competed by tank mates like shrimp and fish, many hobbyists use the cut top of a soda bottle to allow them to squirt the food onto the coral and keep it from floating away or being eaten by competitors.
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Closed Brain Coral
(Favites spp.) Easy Aggressive Medium Any Moderate Brown, Cream, Green, Orange, Yellow Calcium, Strontium, Trace Elements 72-78º F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Indo-Pacific Faviidae LPS Hard Corals Maintenance for the Closed Brain Corals (Favites Brain Coral) is relatively easy, making them excellent choices for both beginner and expert hobbyist. They require only moderate lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. While they do not require high intensity lighting, Pineapple Brain Corals should be given full spectrum lighting usually 6500K with Actinic Blue combination and they will also do fine with more intense lighting systems. Water movement should be moderate, they should not be subjected to any direct continuous current. To maintain Closed Brain Corals in good health, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements should be added to the water. They will also benefit from the addition of supplemental meaty foods in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp. They should be fed twice per week in the evening while the tentacles are visible. The Closed Brain Corals are large polyp stony (LPS) corals often referred to as Moon, Pineapple, Brain, Favites Brain, Star, Worm, or Honeycomb Coral. They are the most common and prolific coral in the world, and are very similar to the genus Favia, sharing many of the same common names, and sometimes being very difficult to differentiate. Closed Brain Corals are found in various color forms and polyp shapes. "Pineapple Coral" is the name commonly given to those that have smaller circular patterns with a tan-ish brown outer ridges and vibrant green inner crevices. Favite Corals are aggressive, expanding their sweeper tentacles at night well beyond their base. It is important to leave space between them and neighbors in the reef aquarium, so that other corals are not stung by the sweeper tentacles. Maintenance for the Closed Brain Corals (Favites Brain Coral) is relatively easy, making them excellent choices for both beginner and expert hobbyist. They require only moderate lighting combined with moderate water movement within the aquarium. While they do not require high intensity lighting, Pineapple Brain Corals should be given full spectrum lighting usually 6500K with Actinic Blue combination and they will also do fine with more intense lighting systems. Water movement should be moderate, they should not be subjected to any direct continuous current. To maintain Closed Brain Corals in good health, calcium, strontium, and other trace elements should be added to the water. They will also benefit from the addition of supplemental meaty foods in the form of micro-plankton or brine shrimp. They should be fed twice per week in the evening while the tentacles are visible.
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Fox Coral
(Nemenzophyllia turbida) Easy Peaceful Low Bottom Low to Moderate Beige, Green, Tan, White Calcium, Strontium, Trace elements 72-78º F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Indo-Pacific Caryophylliidae LPS Hard Corals The Fox Coral is a large polyp stony (LPS) coral that has a fragile calcareous skeleton, which requires extra care when handling or placing this specimen. Be careful that when placing this specimen in your reef aquarium, that it placed gently between the rocks so that it is not damaged. The Fox Coral is a very peaceful coral that does not have stinging tentacles, instead it uses its polyps to feed. The polyps on the Fox Coral will extend approximately 3 times the width of the skeleton during the day. Keep this in mind when placing this specimen within your reef aquarium. The Fox Coral is very easy to maintain, making it an excellent choice for the beginning reef aquarist. By only requiring moderate lighting intensity and low water movement within the aquarium, the Fox Coral has very modest requirements in comparison with many similarly attractive corals. If you are placing the Fox Coral in a reef aquarium with specimens that do require higher lighting & moderate water flow, be sure to situate the Fox Coral in a bottom location within the aquarium that has low water flow. The Fox Coral will benefit from weekly feedings of micro-plankton, brine shrimp or similar other foods. In addition the Fox Coral will also require calcium, strontium, and other trace elements be added to the water.
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Galaxea Coral
(Galaxea sp.) Moderate Aggressive Medium Any Moderate to High Green, Gray, Pink, Brown Calcium, Strontium, Trace elements 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.0-8.4, sg 1.021-1.025 South Pacific Oculinidae LPS Hard Corals The Galaxea Coral (Galaxea sp.) is a beautifully colored South Pacific LPS coral that is highly priced within the marine reef aquarium hobby for both its appearance and relative hardiness within the aquarium environment. Galaxea Corals can be found in a variety of colors including: Tan, Brown, Green, Pink, Gray and Purple. They also have an equally varied collection of common names that they go by within the hobby, including: Galaxy, Star, Crystal, Starburst, Brittle or Tooth Coral. While Galaxea sp. can be found in a variety of colors with an equal variety of names, the most common version found within the hobby is the green colored Green Galaxea Coral. They have been widely imported and aqua-cultured because they do well within the reef aquarium with only an intermediate level of reef experience and can tolerate a variety of aquarium conditions and placements and still thrive. Hobbyists new to reef keeping look to the Galaxea Coral (Galaxea sp.) for its ease of care, while reef experts keep it just for its brilliant appearance. Galaxea Coral (Galaxea sp.) are best characterized as hardy aggressive coral that can be right at home in a variety of reef setups. The Galaxea Coral is considered a hardy coral species because it requires only moderate lighting, medium water flow and twice a week supplemental feedings in order to thrive. When housed in an aquarium with moderate lighting, the Galaxea Coral should be placed in a middle to high position on the reef, while in high lighting situations it should be place in a middle to lower position on the reef. For aquariums with extremely strong lighting, the Galaxea Coral can be placed on the aquarium substrate. They are considered an aggressive species due to their sweeper tentacles, which will extend out upwards of 4 inches during the night and will sting anything they touch. This can be addressed by proper placement of the coral that keeps it approximately 6 inches or so away from its closest neighbor. Varied medium water flow is also important to the health of the Galaxea Coral as it brings feeding opportunities from planktonic foods that are drifting in the current and removes waste products generated by the coral. The Galaxea Coral (Galaxea sp.) requires feedings of meaty foods 2 to 3 times per week. They will readily accept a variety of planktonic coral foods, micro-invertebrate foods along with brine shrimp, mysis shrimp or similar meaty foods. They will use their tentacles to remove these foodstuffs from the current and can also be target fed using a feeding pipette that are readily available within the hobby. Like most invertebrates, Galaxea Coral require additional supplements in the form of calcium, strontium and trace elements in order to allow them to build their exoskeleton for proper growth.
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Black Tube Coral
(Tubastrea micrantha) Moderate Peaceful Medium to Strong Any Low Olive Green, Black Calcium, Strontium, Trace Elements 72-78° F; sg 1.023-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4; dKH 8-12 Indo-Pacific Dendrophylliidae LPS Hard Corals The Black Tube Coral is a large polyp stony (LPS) coral, also commonly referred to as the Black Sun Coral. It is a very dark olive green to black colonial coral, markedly different than others within the species. It is often found on reef ledges or steep reef slopes in the wild, where it feeds on drifting zooplankton. Its skeleton has tubes branching in all directions. They should be placed into rockwork and prefer to be beneath a ledge where they will be shaded from high light. They are a low light species, but do require medium to strong water movement in order to feed on zooplankton that drifts by. Be careful when handling the Tube Coral; it can be fragile and needs to be picked up by its underside when placing it in the aquarium. Moderate to strong water current combined with low lighting levels will provide a good aquarium environment in which the Black Tube Coral can thrive. Usually, it will only expand its polyps in the evening unless it is hungry, when it may expand its polyps during the day. The tentacles have stinging cells that can shoot tiny poison darts into their prey or can even be used as a defense mechanism if necessary, but generally this species is peaceful with other if not overcrowded. While it is a hardy coral for the reef aquarium, it is classified as moderately difficult to maintain because it has special dietary needs. It is one of the few corals that does not contain the symbiotic algae zooxanthellae. Instead, it must be regularly fed vitamin-enriched brine shrimp or micro-plankton from an eyedropper directly to each of its polyps to promote rapid polyp budding. It will also benefit from the addition of calcium, strontium, and other trace elements to the water.
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