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Yellow Stingray
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(Urobatis jamaicensis) Expert Semi-aggressive 14" 360 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Tropical Western Atlantic, Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico Urotrygonidae Rays Fish Only The Yellow Stingray (Urobatis jamaicensis) is found living throughout the tropical western Atlantic, Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. They inhabit shallow inshore waters, where they are typically found foraging in sandy or muddy flats near coral reefs or rocky formations. They utilize sandy flats and areas of sea grass in order to forage for small crustaceans and mollusks, while also using the deep sand and sea grass for protection from larger predatory fish species. Yellow Stingrays are one of the more suitable ray species for the home aquarium as they grow to a modest 14 inches in diameter and about 20 inches in length. Like other stingrays in the Urotrygonidae family, Yellow Stingrays have a venomous tail spine which can inflict a painful wound. While adult specimens still require a large aquarium of 350 gallons or more, they can successfully adjust to aquarium life given the right conditions. Yellow Stingrays are born at approximately 6 inches in length and can grow to about 14 inches in length. The overall length of their body and tail combined can reach about 24 inches in length, while the width of their disc typically reaches about 12 to 14 inches in diameter. Yellow Stingrays generally reach their adult size in about 3 years; however, they often grow more quickly in the aquarium environment where they receive regular feedings. The small size (for a ray) and overall hardiness of the Yellow Stingray makes it suitable for large aquariums maintained by advanced aquarium hobbyists. Yellow Stingray are able to adjust their colors and patterns very rapidly to match their current surroundings, which helps them blend into their environment to avoid predators and trick prey. Most specimens exhibit one of two color schemes that feature either a dark green or brown background with a lighter white, yellow or tan top pattern or a light tan or yellow background with a darker green or brown top pattern. All combined, their unique swimming style, body shape and color changing abilities make the Yellow Stingray an incredibly interesting aquarium species for advanced hobbyists with larger aquarium setups. Stingrays need large aquariums with plenty of open sandy areas and small rocky formations in order to provide them areas to swim, hunt and seek shelter. While small specimens can be raised in smaller aquariums, adult Yellow Stingray will need an aquarium with a foot print of approximately 8 feet by 3 feet in order to give them the necessary swimming room they need. Hobbyists should only purchase Yellow Stingray if they have a large 350+ gallon aquarium available to house the species as an adult. It is recommended that ray aquariums have a deep sandy substrate in order to replicate the natural habitat and feeding patterns of the ray. The natural behavior of burying themselves and searching for food in the sand will help keep the sand bed turned, which helps prevent dead spots from decaying food matter. Strong water flow, mechanical and biological filtration are required to maintain the overall water quality of the aquarium. Large bodied fish like stingrays and sharks produce large bio-loads that require strong filtration systems to be handled properly. It is highly recommended that the stingray aquarium have a large sump, protein skimmer and plenty of water flow to keep dissolved oxygen levels high. Lastly stingray and shark aquariums should be well covered to prevent these strong fish from accidentally escaping from the aquarium. Like their shark cousins, stingrays are not suitable for all aquarium environments or tank mates. Yellow Stingray should be kept in FOWLR aquariums with compatible fish tank mates. Many fish species like Angelfish and Triggerfish will pick at the stingray, which can cause damage and stress. Generally speaking fish that pick at the rocks or have sharp teeth are not usually well suited for shark and ray aquariums. Since the Yellow Stingray feeds primarily on mollusks and crustaceans in the wild, they should not be kept with these species within the aquarium unless they are intended as food. They will not generally bother sessile invertebrates like corals or clams, but their large size and swimming motion makes them too destructive to be kept in most reef aquarium environments. Yellow Stingrays are nocturnal feeders in the wild, spending much of the day laying under a covering of sand. Once nighttime falls, they forage in the sand for a wide range of mollusks, crustaceans, shrimp, crabs and worms. Given time, Yellow Stingrays raised in aquarium environments will adjust to daytime feeding. They can be fed a wide range of marine meaty foods including: frozen feeder fish, silver sides, raw shrimp, clams, squid, mussels and other similar marine based meaty foods. Hobbyists should experiment with both the amount of food being fed and the frequency of feedings to determine the ideal balance between nutritional health and controlled growth rate. Initial feedings 3 times a week an amount of food the ray will consume within 5 minutes is a good starting point. Monitor the girth, overall health and growth rate of the ray to adjust the feeding regimen accordingly. - This species is Venomous, and should be handled accordingly as these animals have an extremely painful sting. If you do get stung immediately soak it in hot water and call a doctor!
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Cortez Round Ray
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(Urobatis maculatus) Expert Semi-aggressive 14" 360 gallons 68-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Sea of Cortez, Eastern Pacific, Baja California Urolophidae Rays Fish Only The Cortez Round Ray is a member of the Urolophidae or Round Ray family, but can be found within the aquarium trade under a variety of common names including: Cortez Ray, Cortez Stingray, Spotted Round Stingray or Chocolate Chip Ray. Round rays are very similar to stingrays, as they both have an oval or near circular disc shape with pectoral fins that are continuous with the sides of the head. Cortez Round Rays have slender tails that are about half of the length of the disc, with large venomous spines. While they are not overly aggressive, they are potentially dangerous as their venomous tail spines can inflict a painful and slow to recover wound. The Cortez Round Ray is found living in warm temperate waters off the Pacific coast of Mexico and Baja California, where they tend to inhabit shallow sandy areas near rock formations or reefs. The shallow coastal waters that the Cortez Ray inhabits are full of small crustaceans and mollusk for the rays to feed on and have rocky formations to provide the ray cover from larger predators. Cortez Round Rays are born at approximately 5 inches in length and can grow to about 14 inches in length. The overall length of their body and tail combined can reach 14 to 16 inches in length, while the width of their disc typically reaches about 10 to 12 inches in diameter. Cortez Round Rays generally reach their adult size in about 2 to 3 years; however, they often grow more quickly in the aquarium environment where they receive regular feedings. The small size (for a ray) and overall hardiness of the Cortez Ray makes it suitable for large aquariums maintained by advanced aquarium hobbyists. Stingrays need large aquariums with plenty of open sandy areas and small rocky formations in order to provide them areas to swim, hunt and seek shelter. While small specimens can be raised in smaller aquariums, adult Cortez Round Rays will need an aquarium with a foot print of approximately 8 feet by 3 feet in order to give them the necessary swimming room they need. Hobbyists should only purchase Cortez Rays if they have a large 350+ gallon aquarium available to house the species as an adult. It is recommended that ray aquariums have a deep sandy substrate in order to replicate the natural habitat and feeding patterns of the ray. The natural behavior of burying themselves and searching for food in the sand will help keep the sand bed turned, which helps prevent dead spots from decaying food matter. Strong water flow, mechanical and biological filtration are required to maintain the overall water quality of the aquarium. Large bodied fish like stingrays and sharks produce large bio-loads that require strong filtration systems to be handled properly. It is highly recommended that the stingray aquarium have a large sump, protein skimmer and plenty of water flow to keep dissolved oxygen levels high. Lastly stingray and shark aquariums should be well covered to prevent these strong fish from accidentally escaping from the aquarium. Like their shark cousins, stingrays are not suitable for all aquarium environments or tank mates. Cortez Round Rays should be kept in FOWLR aquariums with compatible fish tank mates. Many fish species like Angelfish and Triggerfish will pick at the stingray, which can cause damage and stress. Generally speaking fish that pick at the rocks or have sharp teeth are not usually well suited for shark and ray aquariums. Since the Cortez Ray feeds primarily on mollusks and crustaceans in the wild, they should not be kept with these species within the aquarium unless they are intended as food. They will not generally bother sessile invertebrates like corals or clams, but their large size and swimming motion makes them too destructive to be kept in most reef aquarium environments. Cortez Round Rays are active daytime feeders that forage in the sand for a wide range of mollusks, crustaceans, shrimp, crabs and worms. They can be fed a wide range of marine meaty foods including: frozen feeder fish, silver sides, raw shrimp, clams, squid, mussels and other similar marine based meaty foods. Hobbyists should experiment with both the amount of food being fed and the frequency of feedings to determine the ideal balance between nutritional health and controlled growth rate. Initial feedings 3 times a week an amount of food the ray will consume within 5 minutes is a good starting point. Monitor the girth, overall health and growth rate of the ray to adjust the feeding regimen accordingly. - This species is Venomous, and should be handled accordingly as these animals have an extremely painful sting. If you do get stung immediately soak it in hot water and call a doctor!
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Round Stingray
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(Urobatis halleri) Expert Semi-aggressive 10" 180 gallons 65-75° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Eastern Pacific, California Urolophidae Rays Fish Only The Round Stingray is a temperate water species that is found living off the western coast of the United States, Northern Mexico and nearby areas of the Eastern Pacific. Due to the large numbers of this species found living off the coast of California, many retailers and hobbyists have begun calling them the California Stingray. The relatively small size (10 inch main disc) has made the Round Stingray very popular with advanced aquarium hobbyists who keep shark / stingray tanks. Even though the Round Stingray is considered a smaller ray species, they still require a minimum of a 180 gallon aquarium with at least 2 feet from front to back to allow them to turn around comfortably within the aquarium. Stingray aquariums should provide a minimum of 2 feet from front to back, 6 feet in length and 2 feet high in order to provide even smaller stingrays with room to swim and turn. As with most stingray species, the tail spine of the Round Stingray is venomous and can inflict a nasty wound if the ray is provoked. Hobbyists should be aware of the rays location within the aquarium when performing maintenance within the aquarium. The Round Stingray also needs to be transported with caution as the tail spine can become entangled in nets, which will stress the ray. Stingrays kept in the home aquarium have some specific requirements that are crucial to successfully housing them over the long term. The Round Stingray being from the temperate Eastern Pacific needs water temperatures between 65° F and 75° F, which is typically cooler than the average (78° F to 82° F) aquarium temperatures of the more common tropical marine aquariums. The aquarium foot print is critical to housing stingrays as they need plenty of room to swim and turn, which means that the aquarium needs to be at least 2 feet wide and 6 feet long. Larger aquarium foot prints are of course better, with an aquarium of 4 feet in width and 8 feet in length being much more preferable. Secondly, the Round Stingray needs to have a soft sandy substrate that will allow them to both rest and hunt as they would in the wild. The Round Stingray needs to be able to dig into the substrate to both camouflage itself when sleeping or resting and to hunt for invertebrates buried in the substrate. Coarse substrates like crushed coral are not suitable for Stingrays as its coarse composition will scratch the belly of the ray, which will cause it irritation and infection. Coarse substrates also inhibit the natural actions of the Stingray, which will stress the Stingray and reduce the effectiveness of its natural immune system. Lastly, Round Stingrays need high levels of dissolved oxygen within the aquarium water to properly replicate their natural environment. Proper aquarium size, substrate and oxygen levels combined with good nutrition will allow the Round Stingray to avoid diseases and thrive within the marine aquarium environment. Round Stingray's can be shy feeders when initially introduced into the home aquarium. New specimens should be fed with the aquarium lights dimmed or turned off. It is best to offer them fresh squid or shrimp, by placing the food item onto the substrate near the ray. They can also be fed live saltwater feeder shrimp, which will allow the Stingray to hunt the prey in a more natural way. Over time even shy feeders will begin to accept a variety of fresh or thawed frozen meaty foods including: shrimp, squid, scallops, mussels, chopped fish or other similar meaty marine food items.
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Spotted Caribbean Stingray
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(Urolophus halleri) Expert Aggressive 24" 180 gallons 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025, pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Caribbean, Northern S. America to Southern California Rajidae Rays Fish Only The Spotted Caribbean Stingray is a bottom dwelling fish species that will spend most of its time in the aquarium moving along the bottom in search of food or buried in the sand/substrate for protection. The tail spine of the Spotted Caribbean Stingray is venomous, but is only used for protection. Caution should be taken when netting it, or when it is not visible while maintenance is being performed in the aquarium. This species of ray is not as robust as some of the other commonly seen species; therefore, it should only be kept by experts only and only in a large aquarium (min of 180 gallons). The Spotted Caribbean Stingray is a dark brown body with tan spots and rings. It is very round in shape and has a raised back leading from the eyes back to its tail fin. The tail spine is venomous, which the Spotted Caribbean Stingray uses for protection when threatened. Due to its lack of hardiness, the Spotted Caribbean Stingray should only be kept by an expert marine aquarium hobbyist with a minimum of a 180 gallon aquarium with at least a two foot width from front to. It is necessary to have at least 2 feet of space from front to back in the aquarium, so that the adult ray can comfortably swim and turn within the aquarium. The Spotted Caribbean Stingray likes to cover itself with soft substrate as camouflage, and therefore needs a soft substrate such as sand. Coarser substrates such as crushed coral or aragonite not mixed with sand will scratch its abdomen and could cause an infection. The Spotted Caribbean Stingray should never be exposed to copper-based medications. Lastly, this species should not be kept with any crustacean or mollusk unless it is intended as food. Feeding the Spotted Caribbean Stingray can be difficult when it is first introduced into aquarium life. Feeding small pieces of cleaned squid or live saltwater feeder shrimp should be used to entice the Spotted Caribbean Stingray to eat. Then over time, it will be able to be fed shrimp, scallops or pieces of fresh marine fish. Be sure to only feed uncooked and unpreserved fresh meaty seafoods. - This species is Venomous, and should be handled accordingly.
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Fiddler Stingray
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(Trygonorrhina fasciata) Expert Aggressive 36" 400 gallons 72-78° F; dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Indian Ocean, Australia Rhinobatidae Rays Fish Only The Fiddler Stingray originates from the Coral Sea, and is brown in coloration with geometric black or dark brown markings covering the whole of its body. The Fiddler Stingray is attractive in appearance and is not overly aggressive, which allows it to be kept with other larger fish species. Due to the adult size of the Fiddler Stingray a very large aquarium (400 gallons plus) is required to properly house it. The tail spine is venomous, but is only used for protection when the Fiddler Stingray feels threatened. However, caution should be exercised at all times when working around this species; as well as, when netting it, or when it is not visible and maintenance is performed in the aquarium. Both because of the size and the feeding habits (feeds on crustaceans and mollusks) the Fiddler Stingray is not suitable for reef aquariums and should be limited to very large fish only aquariums. The Fiddler Stingray is brown in coloration with geometric black or dark brown markings covering the whole of its body. The body is mostly round with a long tail with impressive finnage and a stinger. The Fiddler Stingray is not a very hardy species and should only be kept by experienced hobbyists who own a very large aquarium. A 400-gallon aquarium with at least a three feet from front to back is necessary for an adult of the species. The aquarium top should also be tightly covered to prevent this species from jumping out of the aquarium. The Fiddler Stingray spends a lot of time on the aquarium bottom and will need a soft substrate, as it is prone to covering itself as a form of camouflage. Sand is recommended as a coarser substrate will scratch its abdomen and could cause infections. The Fiddler Stingray should never be exposed to copper-based medications. When first introduced into the aquarium, the Fiddler Stingray should be fed small pieces of cleaned squid, live saltwater feeder shrimp or ghost shrimps. Live food should be used to entice the Fiddler Stingray to eat, when it is adjusting to aquarium life. Then it may be fed shrimp, scallops or pieces of fresh marine fish, once it has adjusted to life in the aquarium. - This species is Venomous, and should be handled accordingly as these animals have an extremely painful sting. If you do get stung immediately soak it in hot water and call a doctor!
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Blue Spotted Stingray
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(Taeniura lymma) Expert Aggressive 12" 125 gallons 72-78° F; dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Indo-Pacific, Australia Dasyatidae Rays Fish Only The Bluespotted Stingray is also commonly referred to as the Bluespotted Ribbontail Ray and Blue Dot Stingray. Bluespottted Stingrays stays relatively small in comparison to most ray species, but still require a 125 gallon or larger aquarium as an adult. While rays are very exotic and interesting species, they require special housing and feeding requirements and should only be attempted by expert hobbyists or institutions. The Bluespotted Stingray is an attractive bottom dwelling species with a tan body with bright blue spots. The body is more oval in shape than many other ray species with a long tail spine. The middle of the body is more raised and flattens out towards the edges. The Bluespotted Stingray requires a soft substrate, such as sand, as its abdomen is easily scratched by a coarser substrate, which could result in an infection. When not swimming along the bottom in search of food, the Bluespotted Stingray likes to cover itself with the soft substrate as camouflage. Once acclimated and feeding well, the Bluespotted Stingray will eat any invertebrates or mollusks in the aquarium. Care should always be exercised when handling or working in the aquarium with this species as its tail spine is venomous, but is only used for protection. Caution should be taken when netting it, or when it is not visible and maintenance is performed in the aquarium. It is important to provide this species with a large aquarium with a deep sand bed, so that it can swim and turn comfortably without hitting walls or rock work within the aquarium and can easily bury itself within the sand when not feeding. Bluespotted Stingrays species should never be exposed to copper-based medications. When first introduced into the aquarium environment, it may be difficult to get this species to feed. The best way to encourage feeding is by offering it small pieces of cleaned squid, or freshwater ghost shrimp. Dimming the lights in the room along with live foods will help the Bluespotted Stingray to adjust to feeding within the aquarium environment. When feeding consistently, it can be fed pieces of shrimp, scallops, or fish. Keep in mind that any live crustaceans or mollusks will become food for the ray as well. - This species is Venomous, and should be handled accordingly as these animals have an extremely painful sting. If you do get stung immediately soak it in hot water and call a doctor!
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