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Red V-Tail Grouper
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(Cephalopholis urodeta) Moderate Aggressive 11" 90 gallons 74-82° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025, pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Fish Only The Red V-Tail Grouper (Cephalopholis urodeta) is found living near coral reefs and rocky areas of the sea floor throughout the Indo-Pacific from India to the Hawaiian Islands. They are a popular grouper species within the aquarium hobby due to their beautiful red color, moderate size and relative ease of care. They are often sold by a variety of common names including the Flag Fin Grouper, Flag Tail Grouper, Banded Tail Sea Bass, Red Flag Grouper, Darkin Hind Grouper and Coral Cod. Red V-Tail Groupers do well within the aquarium environment as they have a very hardy disposition and a maximum size of about 10 to 11 inches, which makes them well suited for aquariums in the 90 to 110 gallon range or larger. Their smaller max size also makes them easier to pair with tank mates as their smaller mouths make them less of a risk to consume medium size or larger fish mates. Despite being a larger fish species, the Red V-Tail Grouper appreciates plenty of live rock with large caves and rock crevices for them to rest on and swim about. In the wild the Red V-Tail Grouper exists as an ambush predator where they find rocky caves and overhangs in which they perch awaiting to ambush smaller fish and invertebrate species. While they require adequate swimming room, they are never found too far from the coral reef, which is there main source of food and protection from larger predators. Since Red V-Tail Groupers eat large meaty items, they create a lot of waste products, therefore it is important to have a very strong biological filter setup to handled the load this and other large predator species put on a filter system. This species should only be kept with other large semi-aggressive to aggressive fish species, as they will eat any fish or ornamental invertebrates that they can fit in their mouth. They can be aggressive towards other larger fish, but are usually not too bad in this regard in comparison to other larger grouper species found within the aquarium hobby. Red V-Tail Groupers are a carnivorous fish species, thus there diet is made up entirely of meaty items ranging from live fish, shrimp, clams, mussels, krill or other marine meaty items. They should be fed larger meaty items twice a day, as much as they will consume with in a 3 to 5 minutes. They will eat fish or ornamental invertebrates that will fit in their mouth.
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Harlequin Grouper
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(Cephalopholis polleni) Moderate Aggressive 18" 220 gallons 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Predatory Harlequin Grouper or as they are also commonly known as the Polleni Grouper or Polleni Harlequin Grouper, are a larger Indo-Pacific species that dwells in and around coral reefs and rocky areas. They use the coral reef as protection from larger predatory species like sharks or larger groupers, as well as a place to ambush prey with a quick burst of speed and large open mouth. Harlequin Groupers are a very hardy species, that will quickly adapt to aquarium life provided that it is maintained in a large aquarium with excellent filtration. This species is best suited for FO (fish only) or FOWLR (fish only with live rock) aquariums with other large aggressive or semi-aggressive fish species. Smaller fish species, crustaceans and many invertebrates will be seen as food items, thus the Polleni Harlequin Grouper should only be considered for aquariums containing only large aggressive fish species. Harlequin Groupers have a large body (up to 18 inches in length) typical to that of most grouper fish, with a large frontal body that then tapers towards their tail. Their eyes are set forward on their head with a very large mouth and strong pectoral fins. Harlequin Groupers require fairly large aquariums with excellent filtration to accommodate their size and feeding habits. As Harlequin Groupers eat large meals they end up producing a lot of waste products, which means they need excellent filtration (especially biological and mechanical) in order to keep the water quality high. While this species is not harmful to corals, they are well known for quick bursts that will knock over corals or unsecured live rock, etc. They are best suited for fish-only aquariums as their large size makes them destructive when kept within reef environments, along with the fact that they will eat any fish that it can fit in its mouth and will eat most any type of crustacean. Harlequin Groupers live near the fringes of coral reefs in the wild, they should be provided an aquarium environment that contains both live rock formations and open swimming areas. They do best with other large predatory species (triggerfish, eels, sharks, etc.) or with adult semi-aggressive species (large angelfish, tangs, etc.). Harlequin Groupers are an aggressive carnivore that in the wild primarily eat small fish and crustaceans. In the home aquarium, they should be fed large marine based meaty items such as shrimp, mussels, clams, chopped fish, etc. While they will consume feeder fish like goldfish or rosies, these items are not very nutritional for them and should only makeup a very small portion of their diet if at all. Poor quality feeders like Goldfish can also introduce diseases and pollutants into the water as well. The bulk of their diet should be comprised of quality marine meaty foods. Polleni Groupers should be fed daily an amount of food that they will consume within approximately five minutes.
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Moon Grouper
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(Variola louti) Easy Aggressive 30" 300 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Indo-Pacific, Red Sea Serranidae Groupers Predatory The Moon Grouper, commonly referred to within the hobby as the Red Louti Grouper and the Lyretail Grouper, is a large, vividly colorful and hardy species that can be found among the coral reefs throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific and the Red Sea. Moon Groupers, like their similar, Miniatus cousins, are also one of the most colorful groupers within the hobby and can be identified by their intense base coloration of bright red to orange, covered by a multitude of pink to purple spots; they also have bright yellow at the rear sections of all their fins. The yellow marking on their caudal fin resembles a crescent moon, which is how they initially earned the names of "Moon" and "Lyretail". Moon Groupers have strong, pharyngeal teeth that line their throats, which they use to crush prey that are stopped in their tracks and held fast by their many sharp, curved teeth. Moon Groupers are aggressive and can become quite territorial, they should be added as the last inhabitant to their desired aquarium to ensure their tank mates have already established their territories. Moon Groupers are readily available within the hobby, from local and online retailers alike. Moon Groupers should be provided with an aquarium of at least 300 gallons (they grow to 30" and can be around 17 lbs.) and plenty of live rock structure (securely placed so it will not be knocked over in the future) to provide sufficient territory as well as refuge. They are known diggers and may cause structural disaster if their rockwork is not secure; live rock should be "twisted" in place to the bottom of the tank. They are also known to be big eaters and will reach a very large adult size; it is essential that they be provided with a high quality protein skimmer in addition to strong and efficient biological and mechanical filtration as well as scheduled maintenance and water changes. They require open space where they can swim around freely and should also be provided with a decent amount of water movement. Moon Groupers are very large when mature and will show territorial aggression to conspefic and heterospecific tank mates. Tank mates should be similar sized, aggressive species that will not tolerate harassment. They are not recommended for a reef environment as they will eat almost anything that will fit in their large mouths, including smaller fish and invertebrates. They are ideally suited for large, aggressive FOWLR environments, housed with similar sized tank mates. Moon Groupers are carnivores that feed on various fish and motile invertebrates in the wild. In the aquarium, they should be offered a wide variety of meaty foods such as live, frozen, freeze-dried, and vitamin-enriched brine shrimp, mysis shrimp, ghost shrimp, bloodworms, blackworms, krill, silver sides (possibly treated with selcon), squid, crab meat, fresh fish, chopped clams, and other meaty marine foods. They may also accept carnivore/omnivore pellets and similar prepared foods (e.g.; Formula One RDF and Special Formula VHP). Their feeding frequency should be 3-5 times a week.
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White Spotted Grouper
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(Epinephelus summana) Moderate Aggressive 12" 90 gallons 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Predatory White Spotted Grouper or as they are also commonly known as the Spotted Grouper, Summan Grouper or Speckled Fin Grouper are an Indo-Pacific species that dwells in and around coral reefs and rocky areas. They use the coral reef as protection from larger predatory species, as well as a place to ambush prey with a quick burst of speed and large open mouth. White Spotted Groupers are a very hardy species, that will quickly adapt to aquarium life provided that it is maintained in a large aquarium with excellent filtration. This species is best suited for FO (fish only) or FOWLR (fish only with live rock) aquariums with other large aggressive or semi-aggressive fish species. White Spotted Groupers have a large body (up to 12") typical to that of most grouper fish, with a large frontal body that then tapers towards their tail. Their eyes are set forward on their head with a very large mouth and strong pectoral fins. White Spotted Groupers require fairly large aquariums with excellent filtration to accommodate their size and feeding habits. As White Spotted Groupers eat large meals they end up producing a lot of waste products, which means they need excellent filtration (especially biological and mechanical) in order to keep the water quality high. While this species is not harmful to corals, it is best suited for fish-only aquariums as it will eat any fish that it can fit in its mouth and will eat most any type of crustacean. White Spotted Groupers live near the fringes of coral reefs in the wild, they should be provided an aquarium environment that contains both live rock formations and open swimming areas. They do best with other large predatory species (triggerfish, eels, sharks, etc.) or with adult semi-aggressive species (large angelfish, tangs, etc.). White Spotted Groupers are an aggressive carnivore that primarily eats crustaceans and small fish species in the wild. In the home aquarium, they should be fed large meaty items such as shrimp, mussels, clams, chopped fish, etc. While they will consume feeder fish like goldfish or rosies, these items are not very nutritional for them and should only makeup a very small portion of their diet. The bulk of their diet should be comprised of quality marine meaty foods.
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Miniatus Grouper
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(Cephalopholis miniata) Easy Aggressive 16" 180 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Fish Only The Miniatus Grouper, also commonly referred to as the Coral Grouper, is a hardy and vividly colorful species endemic to the coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. Miniatus Groupers are one of the most colorful, if not the most colorful of the groupers in the hobby and are easily identifiable from their intense base coloration of bright red to orange (juveniles tend to have a tan to yellowish hue, which they will grow out of), dappled with hundreds of electric blue to blue-green spots. Miniatus Groupers are predators equipped with large mouths and many small, sharp teeth, which are mainly used to prevent escape as they swallow their prey whole while crushing bones and exoskeletons with the powerful, pharyngeal teeth that line their throats. Miniatus Groupers are an aggressive and highly territorial species that should be added to an aquarium as the last inhabitant, once their other tank mates have had a change to become established. The beautiful, Miniatus Grouper is easy to keep and has become a very popular species within the hobby; they are readily available and can be found through online and local retailers alike. Miniatus Groupers require an aquarium of no less than 180 gallons and they must be provided with plenty of live rock structure (keeping their large, mature size in mind) that will provide them with multiple hiding places as well as areas of territory. They are known diggers and may cause structural chaos and disaster if the aquascaping in the system is not carefully planned and carried out; live rock should be secure and "twisted" back and forth to the bottom of the tank when initially placed. As large predators and big eaters, their aquarium setup will need to be equipped with a quality protein skimmer in addition to strong biological and mechanical filtration. They should also have plenty of water movement and unobstructed areas where they can freely swim around. Miniatus Groupers are known to be quite territorial and aggressive (especially with conspecifics), they should be housed singly and added as the last inhabitant of the aquarium (if housed with tank mates); tank mates should be large enough as not to become food and should be a species that will not tolerate bullying or become overly stressed if occasionally chased off. Although they will generally ignore coral species, they are not recommended for a reef environment as they will ravenously dine on small fish and motile invertebrates. They are ideally suited for a large FOWLR environment, housed with similar sized tank mates. Miniatus Groupers are carnivores that feed on small fish and motile invertebrates within their natural habitat. In the aquarium, they should be supplied a wide variety of meaty food items such as live, frozen, freeze-dried, and vitamin-enriched brine shrimp (as juveniles), mysis shrimp, ghost shrimp, bloodworms, blackworms, krill, silver sides (possibly treated with selcon), chopped squid, fresh crustacean flesh, chopped fish (also live), chopped clams, and other meaty marine foods. They may also accept carnivore/omnivore pellets and similar prepared foods (e.g.; Formula One RDF and Special Formula VHP). Their feeding frequency should be 3-5 times a week.
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Panther Grouper
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(Cromileptes altivelis) Moderate Aggressive 20" 300 gallons 72-78° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.021-1.023 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Predatory Panther Groupers are a well known species of Grouper that have been available to marine aquarists for decades. Their unique coloration and pattern made the Panther Grouper an immediate hit with marine aquarists, but it has been their ability to adapt well to aquarium life which has maintained their popularity for so many years. Panther Groups are relatively slow swimmers that prefer to cruise about the reef looking for possible meals and paroling their territory. Due to their large size and relatively high bio-load, the Panther Grouper requires a large aquarium with excellent biological, chemical and mechanical filtration. Panther Groupers are large predatory fish that need to be housed in large aquariums (300 gallons or more) with other large aggressive to semi-aggressive fish species with strong filtration. Panther Groupers typically reach lengths of about 20" and consume large meaty foodstuffs, which means that they put a large load on the mechanical and biological filtration systems. It is very important to provide a high level of filtration including the use of a protein skimmer, bio tower or similar biological filter and frequent partial water changes to keep nitrate levels low. Being a large aggressive species, Panther Groupers should be housed with other large fish species that have a similar temperament. It is important that groupers not be added to an aquarium with an already established grouper living in it. Groupers will claim the entire aquarium as their territory (unless the aquarium is extremely large) and will aggressively attack other groupers or similar species if they are added to the aquarium. In order to keep multiple groupers within the same aquarium, it is best to add them at the same time while stile juveniles. For average sized aquariums which already have a well established resident grouper and which the aquarist wishes to add another grouper specimen, a well proven technique is to remove the established grouper and place them into a quarantine tank, rearrange the aquarium aquascape considerably, add the new grouper specimen to the main aquarium, then place the original grouper back into the main aquarium a couple of days later. While this is not a guarantee for success, it will greatly enhance the odds of the two groupers finding a balance of territory and coexisting peacefully. Panther Groupers should be fed meaty marine foods including marine fish pieces, squid, clams, shrimp, prawns, silversides, large krill or similar marine meaty preparations. It is important to only feed them raw marine foods as precooked marine foods from the grocery store contain preservatives that are harmful to the fish. There are a variety of frozen meaty foods available including silversides, clams, krill and squid; as well as, freeze-dried and pellet foods made especially for larger marine carnivores. Goldfish or other freshwater feeder fish are not a good food choice as they lack the nutrients that the Panther Grouper needs to maintain a healthy immune system.
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Blue Line Grouper
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(Cephalopholis formosa) Moderate Aggressive 14" 125 gallons 74-82° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025, pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Predatory Blue Line Grouper or as they are also commonly known as the Boenacki Grouper or Blue Line Sea Bass are an Indo-Pacific species that dwells in and around coral reefs and rocky areas. They use the coral reef as protection from larger predatory species, as well as a place to ambush prey with a quick burst of speed and large open mouth. Blue Line Groupers are a very hardy species, that will quickly adapt to aquarium life provided that it is maintained in a large aquarium with excellent filtration. This species is best suited for FO (fish only) or FOWLR (fish only with live rock) aquariums with other large aggressive or semi-aggressive fish species. Blue Line Groupers have a large body (upto 14") typical to that of most Grouperfish, with a large frontal body that then tapers towards their tail. Their eyes are set forward on their head with a very large mouth and strong pectoral fins. The body is a grayish/green color that can exhibit red/orange overtones under some lighting conditions. They have brilliant blue horizontal lines that cover the entire body and its dorsal and tail fins. Blue Line Groupers require large aquariums with excellent filtration to accommodate their size and feeding habits. As Blue Line Groupers eat large meals they end up producing a lot of waste products, which means they need excellent filtration (especially biological and mechanical) in order to keep the water quality high. While this species is not harmful to corals, it is best suited for fish-only aquariums as it will eat any fish that it can fit in its mouth and will eat most any type of crustacean. Blue Line Groupers live near the fringes of coral reefs in the wild, they should be provided an aquarium environment that contains both live rock formations and open swimming areas. They do best with other large predatory species (Triggerfish, eels, sharks, etc.) or with adult semi-aggressive species (large angelfish, tangs, etc.). Blue Line Groupers are an aggressive carnivore that primarily eats crustaceans and small fish species in the wild. In the home aquarium, they should be fed large meaty items such as shrimp, mussels, clams, chopped fish, etc. While they will consume feeder fish like goldfish or rosies, these items are not very nutritional for them and should only makeup a very small portion of their diet. The bulk of their diet should be madeup of quality marine meaty foods.
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Blue Dot Grouper
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(Cephalopholis argus) Moderate Aggressive 16" 125 gallons 74-82° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025, pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Indo-Pacific Serranidae Groupers Predatory Blue spotted Groupers are found living near coral reefs throughout the Indo-pacific where they hunt for small fish or invertebrates to consume. This species is often referred to by a number of names within the marine aquarium hobby, including: Blue Dot Grouper, Argus Grouper, Peacock Hind or Peacock Grouper. This is a larger predatory fish species, that is suitable only for very large (100 gallons or more) fish-only aquariums with other semi-aggressive to aggressive fish species. While this fish is considered easy to keep, it does require excellent water conditions in addition to a large aquarium to be properly housed. The Blue spotted Groupers body is a mottled brown & tan color with six vertical white bands running from just behind the pectoral fins to the tail fin. The white bands can appear anywhere from very prominent to almost completely faded depending on the aquarium environment and the fishes current disposition. The fins are a dark blue color, with a lighter blue outline and the entire body is covered by bright blue dots. Blue spotted Groupers are a very hardy and aggressive predatory fish species that can reach up to 16 inches in length. A large aquarium (100 gallons or more) along with excellent water quality are required to successfully keep this species. Even though the are a larger fish species, Blue spotted Groupers appreciate a lot of live rock with plenty of large caves and rock crevices for them to rest on and swim about. While they require adequate swimming room, they are never found too far from the coral reef, which is there main source of food and protection from larger predators. Since Blue spotted Groupers eat large meaty items, they create a lot of waste products, therefore it is important to have a very strong biological filter setup to handled the load this and other large predator species put on a filter system. This species should only be kept with other large semi-aggressive to aggressive fish species, as they will eat any fish or ornamental invertebrates that they can fit in their mouth. They can be aggressive towards other larger fish, but are usually not too bad in this regard and nothing like the level of aggressiveness seen in species like the Undulated Triggerfish. Blue spotted Groupers are pure carnivores, thus there diet is made up entirely of meaty items ranging from live fish, shrimp, mussels, krill or other marine meaty items. They should be fed larger meaty items twice a day, as much as they will consume with in a 3 to 5 minutes. They will eat fish or ornamental invertebrates that will fit in their mouth.
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