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Spotted Severum
2 likes Severum
(Heros notatus) Easy Semi-aggressive 12" 50 gallons 72-84° F, KH 4-10, pH 5.5-7.0 Omnivore Amazon Basin, Rio Negro, Brazil Cichlidae Severum Cichlid-New-World Spotted Severum (Heros notatus) are native to the blackwater streams and tributaries of Rio Negro basin and surrounding areas of northern Brazil. Their native river habitat is considered a blackwater biotope, as the aquatic environment in these areas has water that is stained brown from tree root and decaying leaf matter, along with filtered lighting due to the sun being heavily blocked by the thick jungle canopy. While the rivers and larger tributaries often have fast flowing waters, Spotted Severum are usually found living on marginal areas of the water ways in and amongst submerged tree root and dense aquatic vegetation. The Spotted Severum can be considered a community Cichlid species, as the combination of their mild temperament and larger size allows them to be kept with a wide variety of Cichlid species and even larger community fish species such as barbs, larger characins and larger sharks and loaches. They can also hold their own with semi-aggressive to aggressive Cichlid species like Oscars, Jack Dempsey, Pike Cichlids and other similar larger predators. Keep in mind that the Spotted Severum despite having a good temperament, will eat smaller fish that they can fit in their mouth and will be seen as food themselves by very large predators like large Snakehead, Arapaima or even very large Peacock Bass. An aquarium of around 50 gallons should be considered a minimum size aquarium for Spotted Severum, with a pair of Severum needing an aquarium closer to 75 gallons, or if multiple tank mates are added. They ideally prefer a fine sand or small smooth gravel substrate as they will scoop sand with their mouths looking for food items. They will also greatly prefer a tank with plenty of structures for shelter, like driftwood, rocky piles, rock formations, cave-like structures and either live or fake plants. Live plants are greatly appreciated, but do not always last long unless a prolific species is used (Anacharis, Cabomba, Hornwort); although omnivorous they have a sweet tooth for live plants and vegetables. High quality biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration is recommended, as they are Cichlids who with thick bodies and larger food consumption, will put out a fair amount of waste products into the water. They prefer water that is slightly acidic and soft, with a pH of 5.5 to 7.0 and a hardness of up to 10°H. Lighting intensity is not an issue; however, to best replicate their native environment some areas of shade or diffused lighting will be appreciated. This can be achieved through floating plants, thick vegetation or larger rocky cave structures. Spotted Severum are omnivorous, who eat a variety of foods including: insects, small crustaceans and vegetable matter present in their natural habitat. They have a tendency to prefer a lot of vegetable matter and will accept peas, lettuce, chopped zucchini, and chopped cucumber; they should also be supplemented with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, bloodworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, and nutritional cichlid and algae (Spirulina) based pellets. They will also do very well with quality stable pellet or stick foods designed for Cichlids and omnivores. It is best to feed between one to three times daily an amount of food they will consume within a few minutes. As the Spotted Severum is not seen for sale nearly as much other Severum species, it is believed that they are not being successfully bred in large numbers with commercial fish breeders. Most specimens commonly found within the trade are imported wild caught specimens or juvenile specimens from boutique or hobbyist breeders. Hobbyists looking to breed Spotted Severum (Heros notatus) will most likely find the most difficult aspect being the acquisition of a group of individuals, from which over time a mating pair can emerge. Beyond establishing a mating pair, providing a proper habitat and maintaining water conditions conducive to stimulating breeding, other aspects of breeding should be fairly common to other Severum species. In general breeding Severum is not overly difficult, but they can often take quite a while to pair up. The parents will look for a cave or a flat rock surface or section of driftwood and the female will lay between 200-800 eggs; the male will fertilize them and then the female will tend to the eggs while the male patrols the perimeter. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry will be relocated to a pre-dugout pit area in the substrate. The fry will be free-swimming within a week and then able to accept finely crushed flake food and baby brine shrimp. As with other Severum species, it may take a while for the breeding pair to get it right and it is common for the parents to eat the fry at various stages for the first dozen or so attempts. They will eventually sort things out and get it right, but the fry could also be removed and raised if continuous failed attempts are excessive.
Red Shoulder Severum
1 like Severum
(Heros sp. rotkeil) Moderate Semi-aggressive 8" 55 gallons 72-84° F, pH 6.0-7.5, dH 5-10 Omnivore Amazon Basin, South America Cichlidae Severum Cichlid-New-World The Red Shoulder Severum is very popular as its one of the most peaceful, larger cichlids in the hobby and generally does not bother their tank mates. Red Shoulder Severums are native to lakes and tributaries of the Amazon Basin in South America, which encompasses a wide variety of water ways. Though not the true mouthbrooding Severum species (Heros Severus), Red Shoulder Severums are very attractive and grow larger than their mouthbrooding relatives; not to mention their remarkable red coloration present on their head, shoulders and on their bellies, anal fins, and pelvic fins in addition to their bright red eyes and beautiful grey bodies with faint vertical bands. Males have extended anal, dorsal, and pelvic fins as well as worm-like markings on their faces and operculum. The rest of the fishes body closely resembles that of the Green Severum. Due to their popularity and successful breeding, the Red Shoulder Severum is always highly sought after fish at both local retailers and online vendors. Red Shoulder Severums require an aquarium of 55 gallons for a pair and the aquarium should be larger (75-90 gallons) if multiple tank mates are added. They should be provided with a fine sand to smooth gravel substrate and a few structures for shelter (driftwood, rocks, and vegetation) and at least one cave. Live plants are greatly appreciated, but do not always last long unless a prolific species is used (Anacharis, Cabomba, Hornwort); although omnivorous they have a sweet tooth for live plants and vegetables. High quality biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration is recommended (they are cichlids after all) as well as slightly acidic and soft water. Lighting intensity is not an issue, but some areas of shade are always appreciated (floating plants are great for this as well as caves). Red Shoulder Severums are relatively peaceful Cichlids and usually only become territorial or aggressive when breeding, but it always depends on the individual; they will defend themselves in regards to more aggressive cichlids bullying them. They can be successful within a community environment, but are more commonly kept in Cichlid or biotope-specific aquariums. Tank mates should be chosen carefully and regardless of a community, species-specific, or cichlid setup, their tank mates should always be comparable in size (Plecos, Geophagus and Parrot Cichlids could be good choices). Red Shoulder Severums are omnivores and eat insects, small crustaceans and vegetable matter in natural habitat. They have a tendency to prefer a lot of vegetable matter and will accept peas, lettuce, chopped zucchini, and chopped cucumber; they should also be supplemented with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, bloodworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, and nutritional cichlid and algae (Spirulina) based pellets. Feed once or twice daily. Breeding Red Shoulder Severums is not very difficult, but they can often take quite a while to pair up. The parents will look for a cave or a flat rock surface or section of driftwood and the female will lay between 200-800 eggs; the male will fertilize them and then the female will tend to the eggs while the male patrols the perimeter. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry will be relocated to a pre-dug pit in the substrate. The fry will be free-swimming within a week and then able to accept crushed flake food and baby brine shrimp. It has been reported that Red Shoulder Severum can take an extremely long time to get it right when breeding and it is common for the parents to eat the fry at various stages for the first dozen or so attempts. They will eventually sort things out and get it right, but the fry could also be removed and raised if continuous failed attempts are excessive.
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Red Spotted Severum
1 like Severum
(Heros appendiculatus/Heros efasciatus) Moderate Semi-aggressive 10" 55 gallons 75-82° F, pH 6.0-6.5, dH 2-6 Omnivore Amazon Basin, South America, Selective Breeding Cichlidae Severum Cichlid-New-World The Red Spotted Severum is a color variant of the Gold Severum, where they are selectively bred to augment the red coloration present on the fish. All color variants of Severum are very popular as they are one of the few larger and peaceful cichlids in the hobby and generally do not bother their tank mates. Red Spotted Severums are native to lakes and tributaries of the Amazon Basin in South America. Though not the true mouth brooding Severum species (Heros Severus), Red Spotted Severums are very attractive and grow larger than their mouth brooding relatives; not to mention their remarkable breeding colors of intensely bright orange-red on their bellies, anal fins, and pelvic fins in addition to their bright red eyes and beautiful green bodies with faint vertical bands. Males have extended anal, dorsal, and pelvic fins as well as worm-like markings on their faces and operculum. Due to their popularity and successful breeding, the Red Spotted Severum are typically available via local retailers and online vendors. Red Spotted Severums require an aquarium of 55 gallons for a single specimen, with a pair requiring 75-90 gallons. They should be provided with a fine sand to smooth gravel substrate and a few structures for shelter (driftwood, rocks, and vegetation) and at least one cave. Live plants are greatly appreciated, but do not always last long unless a prolific species is used (Anacharis, Cabomba, Hornwort); although omnivorous they have may pick at live plants and vegetables. High quality biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration is recommended in order to handle the higher bio-load of larger Cichlid species; as well as, slightly acidic and soft water. Lighting intensity is not an issue, but some areas of shade are always appreciated (floating plants are great for this as well as caves). Red Spotted Severums are relatively peaceful Cichlids and usually only become territorial or aggressive when breeding, but it always depends on the individual; they will defend themselves in regards to more aggressive cichlids bullying them. They can be successful within a community environment, but are more commonly kept in species or biotope-specific aquariums. Tank mates should be chosen carefully and regardless of a community, species-specific, or Cichlid setup, their tank mates should always be comparable in size (Plecos, Geophagus and Parrot Cichlids could be good choices). Red Spotted Severum are omnivores and eat insects, small crustaceans and vegetable matter in natural habitat. They have a tendency to prefer a lot of vegetable matter and will accept peas, lettuce, chopped zucchini, and chopped cucumber; they should also be supplemented with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, bloodworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, and nutritional cichlid and algae (Spirulina) based pellets. Feed once or twice daily. Breeding Red Spotted Severums is not very difficult, but they can often take quite a while to pair up. The parents will clean off a flat rock surface or section of driftwood and the female will lay between 200-800 eggs; the male will fertilize them and then the female will tend to the eggs while the male patrols the perimeter. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry will be relocated to a pre-dug pit in the substrate. The fry will be free-swimming within a week and then able to accept crushed flake food and baby brine shrimp. It has been reported that Red Spotted Severum can take an extremely long time to get it right when breeding and it is common for the parents to eat the fry at various stages for the first dozen or so attempts. They will eventually sort things out and get it right, but the fry could also be removed and raised if continuous failed attempts are excessive.
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Green Severum
1 like Severum
(Heros appendiculatus/Heros efasciatus) Moderate Semi-aggressive 10" 55 gallons 75-82° F, pH 6.0-6.5, dH 2-6 Omnivore Amazon Basin, South America Cichlidae Severum Cichlid-New-World The Green Severum is very popular as its one of the most peaceful, larger cichlids in the hobby and generally don't bother their tank mates. Green Severum are native to lakes and tributaries of the Amazon Basin in South America. Though not the true mouthbrooding "Severum" species (Heros Severus), Green Severums are very attractive and grow larger than their mouth brooding relatives; not to mention their remarkable breeding colors of intensely bright orange-red on their bellies, anal fins, and pelvic fins in addition to their bright red eyes and beautiful green bodies with faint vertical bands. Males have extended anal, dorsal, and pelvic fins as well as worm-like markings on their faces and operculum. There are two distinct color morphs of the species that have identical needs and feeding habits, Green and Gold. Due to their popularity and successful breeding, the Green Severum is always available via local retailers and online vendors. Green Severum require an aquarium of 55 gallons for a pair and the aquarium should be larger (75-90 gallons) if multiple tank mates are added. They should be provided with a fine sand to smooth gravel substrate and a few structures for shelter (driftwood, rocks, and vegetation) and at least one cave. Live plants are greatly appreciated, but don't always last long unless a prolific species is used (Anacharis, Cabomba, Hornwort); although omnivorous they have a "sweet tooth" for live plants and vegetables. High quality biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration is recommended (they are cichlids after all) as well as slightly acidic and soft water. Lighting intensity isn't an issue, but some areas of shade are always appreciated (floating plants are great for this as well as caves). Green Severums are relatively peaceful Cichlids and usually only become territorial or aggressive when breeding, but it always depends on the individual; they will defend themselves in regards to more aggressive cichlids bullying them. They can be successful within a community environment, but are more commonly kept in species or biotope-specific aquariums. Tank mates should be chosen carefully and regardless of a community, species-specific, or cichlid setup, their tank mates should always be comparable in size (Plecos, Geophagus and Parrot Cichlid could be good choices). Green Severum are omnivores and eat insects, small crustaceans and vegetable matter in natural habitat. They have a tendency to prefer a lot of vegetable matter and will accept peas, lettuce, chopped zucchini, and chopped cucumber; they should also be supplemented with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, bloodworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, and nutritional Cichlid and algae (Spirulina) based pellets. Feed once or twice daily. Breeding Green Severum is not very difficult, but they can often take quite a while to pair up. The parents will clean off a flat rock surface or section of driftwood and the female will lay between 200-800 eggs; the male will fertilize them and then the female will tend to the eggs while the male patrols the perimeter. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry will be relocated to a pre-dug pit in the substrate. The fry will be free-swimming within a week and then able to accept crushed flake food and baby brine shrimp. It has been reported that Green Severum can take an extremely long time to get it right when breeding and it's common for the parents to eat the fry at various stages for the first dozen or so attempts. They will eventually sort things out and get it right, but the fry could also be removed and raised if continuous failed attempts are excessive.
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Gold Severum
1 like Severum
(Heros severus) Moderate Semi-aggressive 10" 50 Gallons 75-82° F, pH 6.0-6.5, dH 2-6 Omnivore Amazon Basin, South America Cichlidae Severum New World Cichlid Aquarium The Gold Severum is very popular as its one of the most peaceful, larger cichlids in the hobby and generally don't bother their tank mates. Gold Severums are native to lakes and tributaries of the Amazon Basin in South America. Though not the true mouthbrooding "Severum" species (Heros Severus), Gold Severums are very attractive and grow larger than their mouthbrooding relatives; not to mention their remarkable breeding colors of intensely bright orange-red on their bellies, anal fins, and pelvic fins in addition to their bright red eyes and beautiful green bodies with faint vertical bands. Males have extended anal, dorsal, and pelvic fins as well as worm-like markings on their faces and operculum. There are two distinct color morphs of the species that have identical needs and feeding habits, Green and Gold. Due to their popularity and successful breeding, the Gold Severum is always available via local retailers and online vendors. Gold Severums require an aquarium of 55 gallons for a pair and the aquarium should be larger (75-90 gallons) if multiple tank mates are added. They should be provided with a fine sand to smooth gravel substrate and a few structures for shelter (driftwood, rocks, and vegetation) and at least one cave. Live plants are greatly appreciated, but don't always last long unless a prolific species is used (Anacharis, Cabomba, Hornwort); although omnivorous they have a "sweet tooth" for live plants and vegetables. High quality biological, chemical, and mechanical filtration is recommended (they are cichlids after all) as well as slightly acidic and soft water. Lighting intensity isn't an issue, but some areas of shade are always appreciated (floating plants are great for this as well as caves). Gold Severums are relatively peaceful Cichlids and usually only become territorial or aggressive when breeding, but it always depends on the individual; they will defend themselves in regards to more aggressive cichlids bullying them. They can be successful within a community environment, but are more commonly kept in species or biotope-specific aquariums. Tank mates should be chosen carefully and regardless of a community, species-specific, or cichlid setup, their tank mates should always be comparable in size (Plecos, Geophagus and Parrot Cichlids could be good choices). Gold Severums are omnivores and eat insects, small crustaceans and vegetable matter in natural habitat. They have a tendency to prefer a lot of vegetable matter and will accept peas, lettuce, chopped zucchini, and chopped cucumber; they should also be supplemented with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, bloodworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, and nutritional cichlid and algae (Spirulina) based pellets. Feed once or twice daily. Breeding Gold Severums is not very difficult, but they can often take quite a while to pair up. The parents will clean off a flat rock surface or section of driftwood and the female will lay between 200-800 eggs; the male will fertilize them and then the female will tend to the eggs while the male patrols the perimeter. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry will be relocated to a pre-dug pit in the substrate. The fry will be free-swimming within a week and then able to accept crushed flake food and baby brine shrimp. It has been reported that Gold Severums can take an extremely long time to get it right when breeding and it's common for the parents to eat the fry at various stages for the first dozen or so attempts. They will eventually sort things out and get it right, but the fry could also be removed and raised if continuous failed attempts are excessive.
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