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Jeweled Moray Eel
2 likes Eels
(Muraena lentiginosa) Easy Aggressive 24" 90 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Eastern Pacific Muraenidae Eels Predatory Jeweled Moray Eels are a delightful, hardy species among the smaller Moray Eels, endemic to the Eastern Pacific, running along the coast of California, Central America, all the way to tropical reefs of South America. Jeweled Moray Eels get their name from their dark, purple-brown to mottled white-gold base coloration with multiple white to yellow, contrasting spots and blotches that commonly have darker borders, making them stand out like "jewels". Jeweled Moray Eels are extremely aggressive and possess a painful bite delivered from a powerful jaw and long, sharp teeth that curve inwards in order to capture and shred their prey while attempting to swallow it whole. Jeweled Moray Eels are popular within the hobby due to their smaller size (relative to their larger cousins) and vibrant appearance; they are sometimes elusive within the hobby, but can generally be found through online retailers and can frequently be special ordered from local vendors. Jeweled Moray Eels should be supplied with an aquarium of at least 90 gallons, a sand substrate, and plenty of live rock, which provides at least one (preferably two) cavernous refuge where it can hide its entire body (make sure the live rock is secure as they are a powerful species and can dislodge rock work). They should also be equipped with efficient biological and mechanical filtration and would greatly benefit from the addition of a quality protein skimmer to assist with organic waste. Eels are known for their excellent escape and jumping skills and should only be housed in an aquarium with a tight-fitting, sealed hood; they are also a nocturnal species and should only be exposed to subdued lighting conditions during their first few days of acclimation to a new environment. Jeweled Moray Eels are highly aggressive and have evolved to specifically prey upon fish (including other eels) that will fit into their mouths; however, they are known to be facultative piscivores and they will also consume benthic crustaceans aside from "cleaner" shrimp of the Hippolysmata, Lysmata, and Periclimenes genera. They are ideally suited for large FOWLR systems with large, aggressive tank mates that will not fit into their mouths; they will not usually get along with conspecifics unless they are a pair of juveniles that have been introduced to a much larger (150+ gallons) aquarium at the same time. Jeweled Moray Eels are facultative, piscivorous carnivores (mainly fish-eaters, but will consume other meaty foods) that feed on fish and crustaceans within their natural habitat. In the aquarium, they should initially be offered live fish and ghost shrimp ("gut-loaded"), but can learn to accept frozen, vitamin-enriched (possibly even freeze-dried) mysis shrimp, krill, silver sides, chopped squid, chopped crab meat, chopped fish, chopped clams, and other meaty marine foods. Feed twice a week for juveniles and once a week for more mature specimens (they appreciate a scheduled routine). A feeding instrument such as a pipette, a prong, or a "stick" is highly recommended as Jeweled Moray Eels have an excellent sense of smell combined with poor eyesight, which can lead to injury.
Redbarred Hawkfish
2 likes Hawkfish
(Cirrhitops fasciatus) Easy Semi-aggressive 5" 30 gallons 72-79° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025; pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Japan, Hawaii, Western Pacific Cirrhitidae Hawkfish Reef Compatible Redbarred Hawkfish are micro-predators that move about the reef hunting for small crustaceans and fish to prey on. Since they only reach a maximum size of about 5 inches they are not able to prey on fish 2 inches in length or larger. This makes them suitable tank mates for most adult specimens of commonly kept aquarium fish species. They should not be housed with small Gobies, Dartfish or young Chromis, Clownfish, Damselfish, etc; however, adult Clownfish, Chromis, etc. will be fine. Redbarred Hawkfish can eat a wide variety of marine invertebrates and crustaceans, which makes them only partially suitable for reef aquariums. The bright red coloration and interesting swimming style have made the Redbarred Hawkfish a popular aquarium species for some time. They are generally available to hobbyists both in local fish stores and online; however, they are sold under a variety of common names including: Redbarred Hawkfish, Banded Hawkfish, Blood Red Hawkfish and Fasciatus Hawkfish. Despite their common name, Redbarred Hawkfish can vary in coloration from bright red and white to a dark blue or almost black body with red fins. They do they to better blend into their environment, which helps them ambush small prey items moving about the reef and helps protect them from becoming dinner to larger reef predators like Groupers or reef Sharks. Hobbyists will want to house their Redbarred Hawkfish with plenty of live rock in order to bring out their best coloration. Plenty of live rock will also give the Redbarred Hawk many places to perch and move about on. One of the more interesting features of Hawkfish in generally is watching them move about the reef in their half swimming and half crawling style, as they look for the best places on the reef to ambush prey. The Redbarred Hawkfish is a very hardy specimen for aquarium life, that will do well in a 30 gallon or larger aquarium. Despite its relative small size, it is a predatory species and will eat small fish and crustaceans, thus should not be kept with species like small Gobies, Firefishes, small Wrasses etc. In smaller aquariums the Redbarred Hawkfish can be very aggressive towards smaller fish species and fish with a very peaceful disposition. However, in a larger aquarium (90 gallons and up) the Redbarred Hawkfish can be kept very easily with a variety of semi-aggressive community fish species and larger invertebrates and crustaceans. It is important to provide plenty of live rock & rock work to allow plenty of rocky ledges for the Redbarred Hawkfish to perch on, and caves and crevices for it to retreat to when threatened or sleeping. Generally the Redbarred Hawkfish should not be kept with other Hawkfish species as they are very territorial, except for large aquariums with plenty of rock work capable of creating enough territory for multiple specimens. Redbarred Hawkfish are carnivores that in the wild will dwell near the bottom of the reef or on a rocky outcrop looking to prey on small invertebrates and zooplankton. In the aquarium environment they should be provided a diet consisting of a variety of marine based meaty foods including: frozen and flaked meaty preparations, mysis shrimp, brine shrimp or home made foods consisting of chopped mussels, prawns, clams or shrimp. They will also forage for small crustaceans and various species of pods that are generally present in well established aquariums containing plenty of live rock.
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Gary Wayne
Splendid Dottyback
(Pseudochromis splendens) Easy Semi-aggressive 4" 30 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Indo-Pacific, Australia Pseudochromidae Pseudochromis / Dottybacks Reef Compatible The Splendid Dottyback (Pseudochromis splendens) is found throughout the Western Indo-Pacific to Australia, where it lives in shallow reefs, reef slopes and outer reef areas. They move about the rocks and corals of the reef feeding on all manner of small worms, pods and micro-inverts that they find living in rocky crevices and within the sand. They are an efficient carnivore that makes an excellent addition to all manner of reef aquariums and FOWLR aquariums with plenty of live rock. Wild caught specimens will often vary in color depending on the food source they were feeding on in the area where they were collected. Specimens fed a high quality diet with balanced vitamins will generally exhibit the more sought after brighter coloration, while specimens who are fed a lower quality diet exhibit a more faded coloration. Splendid Dottyback psuedochromis are also known for being one of the larger species of psuedochromis commonly available within the hobby, as they can reach 4 inches in length. Their larger size coupled with the typical aggressive and territorial nature of psuedochromis makes them aggressive for their size. Due to their somewhat aggressive nature, the Splendid Dottyback should be the only psuedochromis or similarly shaped species in smaller aquariums in order to avoid territorial battles. Large aquariums with plenty of live rock can support multiple psuedochromis specimens or a mixture of psuedochromis and other similarly shaped species. Overall the Splendid Dottyback is a very hardy species that makes a good addition to both reef and FOWLR aquariums. The Splendid Dottyback is at home in aquariums ranging from smaller 30 gallon aquariums all the way up to large reef aquariums. Like most other psuedochromis species they are very territorial towards other psuedochromis and similarly sized and shaped fish species. However, they get along very well with a wide variety of community fish species and are not easily bullied by semi-aggressive species like larger wrasse, parrotfish, hawkfish, angelfish, etc. Splendid Dottybacks will not bother corals, invertebrates or sessile invertebrates which makes them well suited for larger reef aquariums. The exception to this is that they will readily consume bristleworms and small shrimp species like anemone shrimp. However, they are quite aggressive for their size, so they are not well suited for reef aquariums with extremely delicate fish species. They do best in aquariums with plenty of live rock caves and crevices and at least around 30 gallons or so of water volume. They have an aggressive personality for their size, which means that they are not well suited for very small nano aquariums or shy tank mates. Splendid Dottyback psuedochromis need a balanced diet containing a variety of marine based meaty foods. Foods high in vitamins like carotene and vitamin A are required for them to truly thrive and exhibit their brightest coloration. Foods like krill and chopped raw table shrimp are good sources for these vitamins as the plant matter and plankton that these species feed on is high in carotene and vitamin A. A well balanced diet made up of mostly meaty based foods with a small amount of plant matter or algae is best suited to provide all the vitamins and minerals the Splendid Dottyback requires in order to maintain a healthy immune system. Ideally they should be feed two to three times per day an amount that they will consume within five to ten minutes. Good food options include: krill, chopped raw table shrimp, mysis shrimp, brine shrimp, chopped raw mussel, chopped raw squid, chopped raw clam, marine algae and marine sponge. High quality commercial flake and freeze-dried foods designed for marine carnivores are also an excellent food source for this species, and often make up the staple portion of their diet when kept in captivity.
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Gary Wayne
Longhorn Cowfish
2 likes Boxfish
(Lactoria cornuta) Expert Peaceful 20" 150 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Omnivore Indo-Pacific Ostraciidae Boxfish Reef Compatible Longhorn Cowfish are extremely popular with hobbyists and are most likely the first name that comes to mind when the species of Boxfish is mentioned. They are a hardy species that can be found grazing among the reefs and sand within less turbulent waters throughout the Indo-Pacific. They are generally peaceful and have an excellent defense against predation by having horns on their foreheads as well as their rear undersides as well as having the ability to secret a venomous ostracitoxin from their already poisonous skin when stressed (ostracitoxin can also be released upon death); care should be taken to keep Longhorn Cowfish comfortable and in a low stress environment as their ostracitoxin can kill other tank inhabitants. Longhorn Cowfish can be found through online vendors, but may sometimes be hard to find; special ordering may be necessary at local retailers. Although they may seem small at a local retailer, Longhorn Cowfish are often seen in the wild at sizes of 20", but generally only reach around 16" in an a home aquarium. They should be housed in nothing less than a 150 gallon system and be provided with plenty of live rock and live sand for shelter and grazing. They love to eat and due to this fact along with their large adult size, they can add a sizable biological load to their aquarium; strong, efficient biological and mechanical filtration is required along with a quality protein skimmer. In the wild they prefer calmer waters and should not be exposed to high, turbulent water movement (low to moderate is recommended). Although they can be reef compatible, a FOWLR system is ultimately recommended as they will not usually harm corals or anemones, but will gladly snack on live snails, tubeworms, small shrimp, and benthic invertebrates in addition to small fish. Longhorn Cowfish are generally peaceful and should be housed with peaceful tank mates that will not cause them stress; however, they can become aggressive with conspecific tank mates and multiple specimens would need a much larger aquarium with plenty of separate territory. Choose tank mates wisely and remember that Longhorn Cowfish have the ability to release ostracitoxin into the water column. Longhorn Cowfish are omnivorous and can be observed in the wild searching for benthic invertebrates in the sand, eat various marine algae, and snacking upon snails, tubeworms, and small fish. They are not picky eaters and in an aquarium environment they will readily accept a wide array of live, frozen, or freeze-dried, and vitamin enriched brine shrimp, mysis shrimp, bloodworms, ghost shrimp, krill, chopped clams, marine algae, mussels, silver sides, snails, and quality, Spirulina-based flake foods for carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores as well as other prepared foods. Longhorn Cowfish, like other boxfish, have teeth that are constantly growing and can be kept in check by the feeding of live snails and various live "feeder" shrimp. Feed 2-3 times a day.
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Ashley Gilbert
Russell's Lionfish
2 likes Lionfish
(Pterois lunulata) Easy Semi-Aggressive 12" 55 gallons 74-82° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025, pH 8.1-8.4 Carnivore Asia, Africa Scropaenidae Lionfish Fish Only The Russell's Lionfish has quite a few common names including: the Red Volitans, Spotless Lionfish, Soldier Lionfish; Largetail or Military Turkeyfish; and Plaintail Firefish. It is recognizable by its tan with light brown coloration and vertical stripes. The spines on the dorsal, anal, and pectoral fins are fleshy, and not banded like those of other Lionfish. The Russell's Lionfish is one of the larger species, which commonly reaches around a foot in length. This species is also one of the more hardy species and relatively easy to keep in the home aquarium. The spines on the fins are poisonous, and if you are stung, the reaction will be similar to a bee sting only a little stronger, which will cause both pain and swelling. As with all Lionfish care should be exercised when working around them in the aquarium to avoid being stung. The body of the Russell's Lionfish is mostly tan and brown stripes, with some black and white detailing. The pectoral fins are elongated with dark brown markings starting at the body and fading as they progress towards the end of the fins. The rear and anal fins are clear with small dark brown dots and small white stripes. The Russell's Lionfish requires a 55 gallon or larger aquarium with large caves or crevices to provide hiding places. It is a very hardy fish and generally peaceful, except towards other Lionfish or smaller fish that can be swallowed; such as, ornamental shrimp and small fish. The Russell's Lionfish has a semi-aggressive temperament and can be kept with other large fish species ranging from groupers to tangs without problem. It is possible to keep this species in a reef aquarium; however, it will may eat many types of small crustaceans and shrimp. Russell's Lionfish are often shy feeders when first introduced to aquarium life until they become acclimated to the tank. Generally feeding live foods such as feeder shrimp or feeder fish will help stimulate the Russell's Lionfish to begin eating. Once acclimated, the Russell's Lionfish will readily eat meaty foods; such as, chucks of fish, mussels and crustaceans. The spines on the ends of the fins are poisonous and cause pain and swelling to humans if stung.
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Ashley Gilbert
True Percula Clownfish
2 likes Clownfish
(Amphiprion percula) Moderate Semi-aggressive 3" 30 gallons 74-82° F, dKH 8-12, sg 1.020-1.025, pH 8.1-8.4 Omnivore Indo-Pacific, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Solomon Islands Pomacentridae Clownfish Reef Compatible The True Percula Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) is possibly the most recognized and popular marine fish species found within the aquarium hobby. Their bright coloration, ease of care and peaceful disposition have made them one of the most popular fish species within the marine aquarium hobby for decades. Their inclusion in movies, commercials and countless publications has made the True Percula Clownfish widely recognizable by both aquarium hobbyists and the general population as well. In addition to their attractive and recognizable color patter, True Percula Clownfish also have an interesting swimming style that is produced by rowing their pectoral fins instead of flapping them like most other fish species. Percula Clownfish are excellent additions for reef aquariums, peaceful community aquariums and larger nano reef aquariums. When describing True Percula Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) it is important to cover the distinction between this species and the similar False Percula (Amphiprion ocellaris). True Percula clownfish generally have 10 dorsal spines with three white bars, with the middle bar having a forward projecting shape. True Percula also have well defined black lines separating the orange and white areas of the fish, often the black areas can be quite thick. The False Percula will typically have 11 dorsal spines and a taller anterior dorsal fin with either no black areas between the orange and white or very thin black outlines separating the orange and white areas of the fish. Percula Clownfish are highly specialized reef fish, who will spend their entire life in a relatively small area on the reef provided that they have a host anemone and adequate food source. Their slow swimming style and ability to live happily in a relatively small space has always made Clownfish ideal for aquarium life. An ideal aquarium setup for Percula Clownfish would include an aquarium of 20 gallons or more, live rock, sand, moderate water flow, peaceful tank mates and a sea anemone host. At a minimum Percula Clownfish should be provided with quality water conditions and peaceful tank mates in order to do well. Percula Clownfish do well in pairs, in small groups of 4 to 6 individuals and singularly. When kept in small groups the two dominant specimens will form a male/female pair, while the rest of the group will stay much smaller in size and will remain asexual. If one of the dominant pair were to be removed or die, one of the asexual members of the group would change their sex to become the male of the mated pair. Clownfish are also commonly referred to as Anemonefish do to their ability and desire to live with a host anemone. Percula Clownfish have established a symbiotic relationship with sea anemones in order to provide them with shelter and protection from reef predators, while providing supplemental food sources for the anemone in the food that they will bring back to their host. Their preferred host anemones are those that are found in their natural reef habitats that range from the Indo-Pacific ocean to Australia in the south and southeast Asia in the north. Some of the best choices for compatible host anemones for Percula Clownfish include: Heteractis magnifica, Stygiomedusa gigantea and Stichodactyla mertensii. In the adsense of a suitable host anemone, some Percula Clownfish will host in some species of corals like Duncan Corals, Torch Corals, Mushroom Leather Corals and other similar species. Wild True Percula Clownfish feed mostly on zooplankton that are present in the currents above the reef and small crustaceans that are found living on the live rock and sand near the Clownfish's host anemone. Wild caught Percula Clownfish adapt quickly to commercial aquarium foods including flake, mini-pellet, frozen and freeze-dried preparations. Also many True Percula Clownfish available within the aquarium hobby trade are from breeders, thus have been fed commercial fish foods their entire lives. It is best to feed them multiple times per day and to vary their diet to include a variety of meaty foods and marine based plant and algae material.
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Ashley Gilbert
Teardrop Butterflyfish
(Chaetodon unimaculatus) Moderate Peaceful 8" 90 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.022-1.026 Omnivore Indo-Pacific, Hawaii Chaetodontidae Butterflyfish Fish Only Teardrop Butterflyfish are a beautiful and peaceful species that can be found in various reef and lagoon environments from the Indo-Pacific to Hawaii. The Teardrop Butterflyfish makes an excellent choice for experienced hobbyists looking to add some activity and color to a large FOWLR aquarium. Teardrop Butterflyfish can be timid and can refuse food during the acclimation process; although they can usually be enticed to eat by the feeding of live brine shrimp or ghost shrimp. Once they have been eating live food for at least a week, they may also accept frozen and prepared foods. Teardrop Butterflyfish will do very well with many different tank mates as well as their own species; as long as they aren't housed with fish species that commonly bully others. Teardrop Butterflyfish require stable, pristine water conditions as well as open swimming space, sufficient water flow, and places where they can hide and take shelter; a well established aquarium is essential. Teardrop Butterflyfish are quite popular with many experienced hobbyists and can readily be purchased from local and online retailers alike. Teardrop Butterflyfish should be housed in an established aquarium of at least 90 gallons and provided with a sand substrate as well as plenty of live rock built up to form multiple caves and crevices for shelter (they appreciate dark hiding places) as well as some open, unobstructed swimming space. To ensure pristine water conditions, sufficient oxygenation, and efficient water movement, strong biological and mechanical filtration is required as well as the use of a quality protein skimmer. They are a timid species and are very peaceful towards their own kind as well as heterospecific tank mates. If multiple Teardrop Butterflyfish were to be kept in the same environment, they would require a much larger aquarium. They are an excellent choice for FOWLR systems, but are not recommended for reef tanks due to their strong preference for eating a wide variety of corals and other sessile invertebrates as well as polychaetes, small crustaceans, and sponges. Teardrop Butterflyfish are an omnivorous species that naturally prefer to eat LPS coral, SPS coral, soft coral, polychaetes, small crustaceans, marine algae, and sponges. In the aquarium they should be provided with a wide variety of meaty foods such as live, frozen, and vitamin-enriched, brine shrimp, mysis shrimp, ghost shrimp, chopped krill, chopped crab meat, bloodworms, nori, marine algae, and high quality flake food (preferably Spirulina-based). They will also graze on any filamentous algae that be already be in the aquarium. Feeding frequency should be twice a day.
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Epaulette Shark
1 like Sharks
(Hemiscyllium ocellatum) Expert Aggressive 40" 300 Gallons No 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Carnivore Indo-Pacific, Australia Hemiscyllidae Sharks Predatory Epaulette Sharks are found living in shallow tropical lagoons, coral reefs and tidal pools from New Guinea to the coasts of Australia and the Great Barrier Reef. Epaulette Sharks have adaptations that make them adept at living in shallow waters, which also makes them one of the most well suited sharks for aquarium life. Epaulette Sharks use their pectoral fins to navigate tight rocky crevices and coral formations that are commonly found both in shallow reefs and home aquariums. Living in a naturally shallow water environment, Epaulettes have become very tolerant of both low oxygen levels and wide temperature ranges. These traits make them excellent aquarium sharks, as home aquariums typically experience more water chemistry and temperature swings than a natural ocean environment. Epaulette Sharks have thin bodies with their tail fins making up almost half of their overall length. Unlike ram ventilation species of sharks that need to keep swimming in order to breath, the Epaulette Shark is able to use muscles in its neck in order to pump water over their gills. This allows Epaulette Sharks to live in aquariums that are much smaller in size than is typically required for many shark species. Being able to sit stationary within the aquarium, walking on their pectoral fins to move about and having long slender bodies with long tails make Epaulette Sharks arguably the ideal home aquarium shark. The adult Epaulette Shark should ultimately be housed in a fairly large aquarium, typically about 300 gallons in size. Juvenile Epaulettes however can be kept in aquariums as small as 55 gallons as long as they are moved to larger aquariums as they mature. All sharks including the Epaulette Shark put out a fairly sizeable bio-load on the filtration as they eat large meaty foods and put out an equally large amount of waste. Thus excellent biological, chemical and mechanical filtration is required to provide good water quality. Protein skimmers are very important for shark aquariums as they remove waste before it has a chance to breakdown. This is critical to shark aquariums as they typically lack the large amounts of live rock and cleaning crew invertebrates that reef aquariums posses to help breakdown or denitrify the aquarium water. The addition of a large external refugium is highly recommended for the shark aquarium, since it provides a place for beneficial denitrifying bacteria, reef cleaning invertebrates and nutrient consuming macro algae and plants to grow and thrive. All of which will help maintain excellent water conditions in the main aquarium housing the sharks. Epaulette Shark aquariums should generally be at least as deep from front to back as the shark is long, and at least 3 times as long as the shark. Only soft sandy substrates should be used as to not irritate the soft underside of the shark as it crawls about the substrate. Crushed coral and other coarse substrates are not well suited for shark aquariums. Being a nocturnal species in nature, the Epaulette Shark should be provided with plenty of large rocky caves and crevices in which it can retreat to in order to escape the bright aquarium lighting. Tank mates should also be carefully considered, as small fish, crabs, shrimp, etc. will be seen as prey items, while large aggressive Angelfish, Triggerfish and Groupers can cause damage to the Shark. Lastly, the aquarium should be well covered in order to keep the heavily muscled shark from accidentally finding its way out of the aquarium and onto the floor. In their natural habitat, Epaulette Sharks feed primarily on small crabs, worms, shrimp and small fish that they find living in small rocky crevices, coral crevices and underneath the sand. Their powerful jaws are capable of producing a large amount of suction that they use to extract prey from both tight crevices and from underneath the sand. Epaulette Sharks have small teeth that are used for holding prey while the swallow it, not to chop or chew foods. Thus they are limited to what size foods that they can consume. Hobbyists should feed their Epaulette Shark an amount of food that the Shark will eagerly consume within a few minutes, 2 to 3 times per week. Recommended food items include: shrimp, mussels, clams, feeder shrimp, frozen feeder fish or other similar marine based meaty items. Be sure to monitor the overall girth of the Sharks body to be sure that it is receiving adequate nutrition. If the stomach extends out past the overall body or the shark is growing very quickly, cut back a bit on the quantity of food at each feeding. If the shark appears thin either increase the amount of food per feeding or increase feedings to 3 to 4 times per week.
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Bicolor Blenny
1 like Blennies
(Ecsenius bicolor) Easy Peaceful 4" 30 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Herbivore Indo-Pacific Blenniidae Blennies Reef Compatible Native to the many rocks and crevices within the tropical reefs of the Indo-Pacific, the Bicolor Blenny (Ecsenius bicolor) is a readily available aquarium favorite and an excellent "nano" or "reef-safe" species for beginners as well as the more experienced hobbyists. Bicolor Blennies are intelligent, have outstanding personalities, comical mannerisms, and love to find a place to perch and watch what's going on around them; they will definitely add fun and personality to any reef aquarium. The Bicolor Blenny has an elongated body with a dark purple-gray to blue anterior shifting to a bright yellow to orange posterior. They have long cirri protruding from between their blue-rimmed eyes, are equipped with combed teeth for algae grazing and will prosper in an established aquarium with mature algae growth. Males can be identified as being larger than females and will have an extension of their first dorsal fin. The Bicolor Blenny requires an aquarium of at least 30 gallons and should be provided with plenty of live rock for perching and hiding places; rock-work should be supported as Bicolor Blennies are active diggers and will frequently move rubble, sand, shells, and other small debris, to suit their needs. Blennies are known to be excellent jumpers, so a secure top is recommended for their aquarium. They are normally peaceful bottom dwellers, but they can be territorial and have been known to quarrel with other Blennies, small Gobies, Dartfish and species that have similar color patterns (e.g. Royal Gramma, Bicolor Pseudochromis). They are considered to be reef-safe, but have been observed -in smaller systems- picking at the mantles of clams and LPS corals when underfed (well fed specimens in larger systems rarely exhibit this behavior). The Bicolor Blenny is a herbivore and should be fed a variety of seaweed and marine algae-based, prepared foods in addition to algae that is present in the aquarium. Although requiring vegetable matter in their diets, Bicolor Blennies have also been known to eat other foods such as live, frozen, freeze-dried, and vitamin enriched brine shrimp, finely chopped mysis shrimp, and finely chopped krill as well as various pellets and flake foods. Feed twice per day.
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Matted Filefish
1 like Filefish
(Acreichthys tomentosus) Moderate Peaceful 4" 30 gallons 72-80° F, dKH 8-12, pH 8.1-8.4, sg 1.020-1.025 Omnivore Indo-West Pacific Monacanthidae Filefish Fish Only The Matted Filefish, often referred to as the Bristletail Filefish, is an attractive species that is well known for its ability to eliminate Aiptasia and Majano anemones. Matted Filefish also have the ability to camouflage themselves by shifting their mottled coloration, effectively blending into the rock rubble, seagrass, and shallow coral reefs throughout their Indo-West Pacific habitat. Matted Filefish are a gentle and peaceful species that generally prefers to investigate their aquarium while always on the lookout for snacks. Matted Filefish are quite popular in the hobby and are commonly available through online retailers; local vendors should be able to place a special order if they aren't in stock. Matted Filefish require an aquarium of at least 30 gallons and require a sand to crushed-coral substrate in addition to plenty of live rock for grazing and shelter. Although they have proven to be a hardy species, they appreciate an established aquarium with stable water conditions as well as high quality, biological and mechanical filtration (including a protein skimmer). They will coexist peacefully with many other tank mates, but should not be housed with aggressive fish that may harass them or pick at the bristle-like spinules of maturing males. Although Matted Filefish will decimate and likely eradicate infestations of nuisance anemones, they have been known to nip at some coral polyps (e.g.; zoanthids and palythoas) and sessile invertebrates; they are also known to consume small crustaceans (including ornamental shrimp), bivalve mollusks, and polychaetes. They aren't considered to be reef friendly and would ideally be housed in a peaceful, community FOWLR system. Matted Filefish are omnivores that mainly feed upon amphipods, bivalve mollusks, copepods, isopods, polychaetes, and various marine algae within their natural habitat. In an aquarium environment, they should be fed a variety of meaty food items such as live, frozen, freeze-dried, prepared, and vitamin enriched brine shrimp, mysis shrimp, krill, squid, crab meat, clams, scallops, and marine algae. Feed multiple small meals (at least thrice) per day. Matted Filefish are dimorphic egg-layers that have been reported to readily breed in an aquarium environment. A pair can generally be formed by simply introducing a male and female to an aquarium at the same time (the male can be identified by the presence bristle-like spinules); mature males will display retrorse spinules at roughly 2-3" and females will have developed eggs at 3". The Female will eventually lay around 300 adhesive eggs in a sheltered location on the substrate, which she will defend until they hatch a few day later. New fry can be fed a diet of Artemia nauplii and euryhaline rotifers for the first two weeks, after which they can be moved to mature Artemia Salina and juvenile-sized foods.
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