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Tiger Shovelnose Catfish
(Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) Moderate Aggressive 40" 180 gallons 75-82° F, KH 6-20, pH 6.0-8.0 Omnivore South America Pimelodidae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller Tiger Shovelnose Catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) or as they are often affectionately known as TSN's are found throughout the larger rivers and tributaries of South America. As adults they typically stay in the larger deeper rivers where they spend much of their time along the river bottom looking for meaty foods to consume. Their attractive appearance, large size and overall interesting personality have made the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish a very popular aquarium species with hobbyist who keep larger (monster) fish species. The Tiger Shovelnose Catfish is a large catfish species that can attain a length of over 3 feet within the aquarium environment, thus require a very large aquarium as an adult. They have a long and slender body with a beautiful silver coloration along with black stripes and spots covering the entirety of the body, which gives them a tiger-like appearance. Their mouth is adorned with very long whiskers in order to seek out prey in dark or dimly lit areas, along with a long, large, flat shaped mouth which they use to inhale unsuspecting prey. While the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish is readily available within the aquarium hobby, it is not suitable for the beginner or casual aquarium hobbyist. This species gets very large and aggressive and will require a very large aquarium as an adult in order to properly housed and cared for. Therefore, the Tiger Shovelnose is only recommended for intermediate to advanced aquarium hobbyists who have larger aquariums and powerful filtration systems rated to handle larger (monster) fish species like the Tiger Shovelnose. Along with a very large aquarium and solid filtration, the Tiger Shovelnose will appreciate plenty of water flow along with some driftwood or rock formations to provide it some cover within the aquarium. The aquarium should be tightly covered with a strong weighted top, as the Tiger Shovelnose is a powerful jumper that can easily escape from an uncovered or poorly covered aquarium. Lastly, the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish needs to be kept with other large aggressive fish species that are not small enough to fit in the mouth of the TSN and have a strong enough personality to not be bullied by an adult Tiger Shovelnose Catfish. Like most larger catfish species, the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish is an opportunistic feeder that will consume a wide variety of meaty items including both fish and invertebrates. In the wild the TSN is a nocturnal hunter that preys on a variety of native fish species found throughout South America, along with any crustacean that will fit in their mouths. In the aquarium environment the Tiger Shovelnose will readily accept a wide variety of foods including: worms, catfish pellets, pellet, frozen or freeze-dried meaty food preparations, fish that will fit in their mouths and a variety of shrimp, crab or other crustaceans found in fresh water aquariums. It is best to feed them a variety of meaty foods so that they receive a wide ranging diet which helps insure that they receive a range of nutrients to promote a healthy immune system. Hobbyists should feed them daily and adjust the amount of food and frequency of feedings based on the girth of the fish and the desired growth rate.
Senegal Bichir
3 likes Bichirs
(Polypterus senegalus) Easy Semi-aggressive 18" 90 gallons 75-82° F, KH 5-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller Senegal Bichir are widely distributed across Africa, where they can be found living in a variety of slow moving shallow waters including: swamps, marshes, lakes, estuaries and small tributaries. They can grow upwards of 18 inches in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 12 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. The majority of Senegal Bichir available within the aquarium hobby are farm raised specimens that do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. Bichir have several interesting adaptations, which include a divided swim bladder and primitive lung. These adaptations the fish to take in oxygen from the air, allowing it to survive out of water for some time, provided it is kept moist. Like Ananbantoid species, they will actually drown if denied access to atmospheric air. Young bichirs even have amphibian-like external gills which are lost as the fish matures into adulthood. These adaptations along with their amphibian like behaviors of hiding during the day and hunting at night, exhibit a clear link between the modern bichir and amphibians. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Senegal Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Senegal Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length, with the height of the aquarium being less important. As a nocturnal species, the Senegal Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Senegal Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Senegal Bichir are adept at finding their way out of aquariums and onto the floor, thus a tight-fitting aquarium cover is needed. Senegal Bichir do well with other large semi-aggressive tank mates including larger South American and African Cichlids. They do not do well with aggressive Cichlids or Cichlid large enough to view the Bichir as a food item. In general, hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Senegal Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the Senegal Bichir will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Senegal Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed 1 to 2 times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Senegal Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
Albino Senegal Bichir
2 likes Bichirs
(Polypterus senegalus) Easy Semi-aggressive 18" 90 gallons 75-82° F, KH 5-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller Albino Senegal Bichir are selectively bred variants of the common Senegal Bichir. Senegal Bichir are widely distributed across Africa, where they can be found living in a variety of slow moving shallow waters including: swamps, marshes, lakes, estuaries and small tributaries. They can grow upwards of 18 inches in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 12 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. Albino Senegal Bichir are available within the aquarium hobby as farm raised specimens that do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. Bichir have several interesting adaptations, which include a divided swim bladder and primitive lung. These adaptations the fish to take in oxygen from the air, allowing it to survive out of water for some time, provided it is kept moist. Like other Ananbantoid species, they will actually drown if it is denied access to atmospheric air. Young bichirs even have amphibian-like external gills which are lost as the fish matures into adulthood. These adaptations along with their amphibian like behaviors of hiding during the day and hunting at night, exhibit a clear link between the modern bichir and amphibians. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Albino Senegal Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Albino Senegal Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length, with the height of the aquarium being less important. As a nocturnal species, the Albino Senegal Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Albino Senegal Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Albino Senegal Bichir are adept at finding their way out of aquariums and onto the floor, thus a tight-fitting aquarium cover is needed. They do well with other large semi-aggressive tank mates including larger South American and African Cichlids. They will not do well with aggressive Cichlids or Cichlid large enough to view the Bichir as a food item. In general, hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Albino Senegal Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the it will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Albino Senegal Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed 1 to 2 times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Albino Senegal Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
Ornate Bichir
2 likes Bichirs
(Polypterus ornatipinnis) Moderate Semi-aggressive 24" 90 gallons 75-84° F, KH 1-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore Central Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller Ornate Bichirs are arguable one of the most attractive species of Bichir available within the aquarium hobby. An adult specimen with its unique color pattern and large size can become the center piece of the aquarium. In the wild the Ornate Bichir can be found living in the rivers, lakes, ponds and marshes of Central Africa, where they forage amongst the substrate for small fish, worms, crustaceans and similar meaty foods. They can grow upwards of 2 feet in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 18 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. The majority of Ornate Bichirs available within the aquarium hobby are wild caught specimens; however, they do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Ornate Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Ornate Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length; however, the height of the aquarium can vary quite a bit as it is less important. Being a nocturnal species, the Ornate Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Ornate Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Most larger semi-aggressive African Cichlids and New World Cichlids to quite well with Bichir, along with large Knife fish, other Bichir species, Synodontis and Datnoides species. Moderate to advanced hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Ornate Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the Ornate Bichir will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Ornate Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed one or two times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Ornate Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
Motoro Stingray
(Potamotrygon Motoro) Moderate Semi-aggressive 36" 180 Gallons 75-82° F, KH 8-14, pH 5.0-6.5 Carnivore South America, Amazon River basins Potamotrygonidae Stingrays New World Cichlid Aquarium Motoro Stingray's are found living throughout South America including Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Paran-Paraguay, Orinoco, and Amazon River basins. In the wild they spend the majority of their time along the river beds in search of worms or invertebrates on which to prey. As they spend much of their time on the river or pond bottom, they have adjusted to lower light levels and will prefer lower lighting levels in their aquarium home as well. Motoro Stingray's like other rays will bury themselves within the substrate of their environment as a form of protection when they feel threatened. Therefore a substantial soft substrate should be provided to them in the aquarium in order to simulate their wild habitat. Like other stingrays, the Motoro is a high-metabolic fish that is in near constant movement and feeds many times throughout the day. This high metabolism also means that they produce a lot of waste, which requires a strong biological and chemical filtration system in order to provide them the very high quality water they need to survive and thrive within the aquarium environment. Motoro Stingray's are considered moderately difficult to keep; however, if some standard rules for caring for rays are closely adhered to the Motoro Stingray should be reasonably easy to keep. Aquariums containing rays need to have very clean water that allows for consistent stable water parameters with minimal fluctuations in pH & nitrates, along with ammonia and nitrite that are kept at non-detectable levels. Strong mechanical, biological and chemical filtration will need to be supplemented by regular water changes in order to keep nitrate levels consistently low. Rays eat quite a bit and are a large bodied fish that will put out a sizable amount of waste for the filtration system to keep up with. Therefore, a properly running filtration system will generate a good amount of nitrates in response to the heavy bio-load. Typically frequent water changes are used to keep nitrates low, but other methods like nitrate removing aquatic vegetation within a sump can also be used in conjunction with water changes to keep nitrates low. The aquarium decor should be designed with the ray in mind, which means a soft sandy substrate and a large amount of swimming room with minimal rock, wood and plant decor. Motoro Stingray's can be feed a variety of different meaty foods including: beef heart, fish flesh, earth worms, krill, blood worms, table shrimp, clams and small fish like minnows, silversides or similar feeder fish. Earthworms and invertebrates rank up very high on the Motoro's favorite foods list and is a good food choice to get them eating when first introduced to the aquarium. They can then be fed a more varied diet as they become settled within the aquarium. Any crustaceans present in the aquarium will be treated as a prey item and should only be present within a ray aquarium if intended as a food source.
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Lima Shovelnose Catfish
(Sorubim lima) Moderate Aggressive 18" 180 gallons 73-84° F, KH 10-12, pH 6.2-7.3 Omnivore Amazon, South America Pimelodidae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller The Lima shovelnose catfish (Sorubim lima) is a species of shovelnose catfish that is common throughout the Amazon and parts of South America. Their name originates from their flat rounded heads, which they use like a shovel to dig in the substrate for various food items. In the wild, the Lima shovelnose catfish spends much of its time moving about the bottom of rivers and tributaries looking for small crustaceans and fish species to consume. Lima shovelnose also position themselves vertically near tree roots and similar structures waiting for unsuspecting fish to swim nearby. While they are an aggressive predatory species, the Lima shovelnose is one of the smaller Pimelodidae family species reaching between 14 to 18 inches within the aquarium environment. While this is still a large sized fish, it is much smaller than the 36 to 48 inches of length that other members of the Pimelodidae family reach. Hobbyists looking to keep Lima shovelnose Catfish will need to have a large aquarium of 180 gallons or more, as an adult specimen can reach up to 18 inches in length; however, juveniles can be raised in smaller aquariums ranging from 55 to 125 gallons. They are an active fish species that is known to jump out of uncovered aquariums, thus well covered aquariums are highly recommended. Lima shovelnose will do best in aquariums that resemble their natural surroundings as close as possible, thus a sand/gravel mix substrate, driftwood or tree root and Amazonian plant species will all be highly desirable additions to a Lima shovelnose tank. While not overly sensitive to overall water quality the Lima shovelnose does put out a large bio-load, which means aquariums housing this species should have strong biological filtration and good water movement in order to keep high quality water conditions. Lastly the Lima shovelnose should be housed with other large aggressive fish species that it cannot fit in its mouth, as smaller fish species, shrimp, crayfish, etc. will all be seen as food items. In their native habitat, Lima shovelnose catfish consume a wide variety of small crustaceans, fish, insects and worms. They will readily accept these same foods within the aquarium environment, or they can be fairly easily weaned from these foods to more economical pellet foods, crickets and earthworms. An added benefit of pellet foods, crickets, earthworms and similar foods is that they do not spread diseases like feeder fish can and provide a more nutritious and balanced diet for the Lima shovelnose.
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Mottled Bichir
1 like Bichirs
(Polypterus weeksii) Moderate Semi-aggressive 22" 90 gallons 76-84° F, KH 1-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore West Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller The Mottled Bichir (Polypterus weeksii) is a popular western African Bichir species known for its mild temperament and large head. While they are not aggressive towards other large fish species, their large head and corresponding mouth make them capable of eating surprising large fish. Tank mates should be carefully selected to make sure that they are large enough to not fit into the Mottled Bichirs mouth. Within the aquarium trade the Mottled Bichir is often sold under a variety of names including: Weeks Bichir, Fat-headed Bichir, Fathead Bichir and of course Mottled Bichir. They exhibit a distinctive color pattern of dark grey bands over a light grey body, with a whitish under belly. In the wild the Mottled Bichir can be found living in the rivers, lakes, ponds and marshes of western Africa, where they forage amongst the substrate for small fish, worms, crustaceans and similar meaty foods. They can grow upwards of 2 feet in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 16 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their large mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. The majority of Mottled Bichirs available within the aquarium hobby are wild caught specimens; however, they do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Mottled Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Mottled Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length; however, the height of the aquarium can vary quite a bit as it is less important. Being a nocturnal species, the Mottled Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Mottled Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Most larger semi-aggressive African Cichlids and New World Cichlids to quite well with Bichir, along with large Knife fish, other Bichir species, Synodontis and Datnoides species. Moderate to advanced hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Mottled Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the Mottled Bichir will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Mottled Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed 1 to 2 times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Mottled Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
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Jaguar Ray
(Potamotrygon Otorongo) Moderate Semi-Aggressive 24" 180 gallons 74-82° F, KH 8-12, pH 6.0-7.5 Carnivore South America Potamotrygonidae Stingrays Large-Bottom-Dweller Jaguar Rays (Potamotrygon Otorongo) inhabit the many river basins of South America and the Amazon. They are a bottom dwelling species that spend much of their time hunting along the riverbed for worms, crustaceans and small fish on which to prey. When not searching for food, Jaguar Rays will often partially bury themselves in the sandy substrate of the riverbed to provide them camouflage and provide a sense of protection from potential predators. As with other species of freshwater stingrays, it is often difficult to make positive identifications based on pattern and coloration alone. When attempting to positively identify a Jaguar Ray it is important to look for a powerfully built tail which is noticeably longer than the body. The upper surface of the tail should have either irregularly light spots or a dark background covered in dark lines on a lighter background. The lower half of the tail appears striped or barred when viewed laterally. The body disc has a fine light edge which is not always noticeable. Jaguar Rays are fairly common within the aquarium hobby, especially with specialized dealers that deal in the more exotic rays and cichlids of South America. Jaguar Rays are considered moderately difficult to keep; however, if some standard rules for caring for rays are adhered to, the Jaguar Ray should be reasonably easy to keep. Aquariums containing rays need to have very clean water that allows for consistent stable water parameters with minimal fluctuations in pH & nitrates, along with ammonia and nitrite that are kept at non-detectable levels. Strong mechanical, biological and chemical filtration will need to be supplemented by regular water changes or some form of nitrate/nutrient export, in order to keep nitrate levels consistently low. Rays eat quite a bit and are a large bodied fish that will put out a sizable amount of waste for the filtration system to keep up with. Therefore, a properly running filtration system will generate a good amount of nitrates in response to the heavy bio-load. Typically frequent water changes are used to keep nitrates low, but other methods like nitrate removing aquatic vegetation within a sump can also be used in conjunction with water changes to keep nitrates low. The aquarium decor should be designed with the ray in mind, which means a soft sandy substrate and a large amount of swimming room with minimal rock, wood and plant decor. Jaguar Rays can sometimes be difficult feeders when first introduced into the aquarium. In this case it is best to substantial dim or turnoff the aquarium lights, then offer earthworms or black worms to help stimulate feeding. Once feeding, Jaguar Rays are known to be very aggressive feeders that will consume a large variety of meaty offerings. Jaguar Rays can be fed a wide variety of different meaty foods including: beef heart, fish flesh, earth worms, krill, blood worms, table shrimp, clams and small fish like minnows, silversides or similar feeder fish. Earthworms black worms and invertebrates rank up very high on the Jaguar's favorite foods list and is a good food choice to get them eating when first introduced to the aquarium. They can then be fed a more varied diet as they become settled within the aquarium and become more accustomed to accepting food from their owner. Any crustaceans present in the aquarium will be treated as a prey item and should only be present within a ray aquarium if intended as a food source. They are aggressive feeders once they become fully acclimated to the aquarium environment and have begun accepting foods.
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Tire Track Eel
1 like Eels
(Mastacembelus armatus) Moderate Semi-Aggressive 30" 75 gallons 72-82° F, KH 10-16, pH 6.8-7.2 Carnivore Southeast Asia Mastacembelidae Eels Large-Bottom-Dweller The Tire Track Eel (Mastacembelus armatus) is a species of ray-finned spiny eel that is native to many parts of Southeast Asia ranging from India and Pakistan to Thailand and Vietnam. Like many other fish species the Tire Track Eel goes by a variety of common names including: spiny eel, Zigzag Eel, White-spotted Spiny Eel and Leopard Eel. Like many freshwater eel species the Tire Track Eel is not a true "Eel" but rather a species of elongated freshwater fish that closely resemble the appearance of a true eel. Many freshwater aquarium hobbyists prize this species for their size, coloration and snake like appearance that many find very interesting. Their appearance includes anal and dorsal fins that are elongated and connected to the caudal fin. Their eyes have brown stripes running laterally through them, with their backs having a dark tan color and a head that is a light beige color. Their body color is a dull brown with the brown coloration fading to a tan on their belly. The body also has one to three darker longitudinal zigzag lines that connect to form a distinct reticulated pattern that is restricted to the rear two-thirds of the body. Due to their large adult size of nearly 30 inches in length, Tire Track Eels need a larger aquarium to be housed properly. While smaller tanks can be used during the grow out phase, the Tire Track Eel will eventually need a 75 gallon or preferably larger aquarium to comfortably house an adult specimen. Tire Track Eels also need an aquarium setup with a deep soft substrate consisting of sand or a sand gravel mix that will allow them to burrow and forage in the substrate. As this species is known to both forage in the substrate and bury itself within the substrate, the aquarium decor should be designed with this in mind. Tire Track Eels should be housed with medium to large semi-aggressive species like large loaches, Gouramis, Knifefish, Geophagus, Acara or similar species that will both not harm the Eel or be seen as food to the Eel. They will see smaller fish species as prey items, thus are not suitable for aquariums with small tropical community fish like barbs and tetras. They are territorial towards their own kind, thus should not be kept with other Tire Track Eels unless within a very large aquarium capable of supporting multiple territories within the tank. Being a substrate dweller, the Tire Track Eel should have plenty of space to roam about the bottom of the aquarium and should be provided with caves, tunnels, rock crevices or similar aquarium decor to provide them shelter. Tire Track Eels do well in both freshwater and brackish water conditions; therefore, 2 teaspoons of sea salt can be added per 3 gallons of water to create brackish conditions if desired. Tire Track Eels are nocturnal carnivores in nature, where they forage for insects, insect larvae, various species of worms and other similar meaty fare. In the aquarium the Tire Track Eel will adjust to eating during periods with full aquarium lighting or in partial lighting conditions after some acclimation to the aquarium environment. They should be fed a varied diet of foods ranging from live earthworms or black worms to frozen or pellet foods ranging from krill, plankton, tubifex worms, brine shrimp, frozen bloodworms, cyclopeeze or krill. They are also likely to forage in the substrate for plant roots or in search of insect larvae, so this should be taken into consideration when designing an appropriate aquarium setup. Ideally you will want to feed the Tire Track Eel at least once a day as much as they will consume within a few minutes or multiple times if an increased growth rate is desired. They can easily go a few days without eating from time to time if necessary.
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Zebra Shovelnose
(Brachyplatystoma tigrinum) Moderate Semi-aggressive 24" 180 gallons 75-82° F, KH 5-12, pH 6.8-7.8 Omnivore South America, Peru, Colombia, Brazil Pimelodidae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller Zebra Shovelnose (Brachyplatystoma tigrinum) inhabit the fast flowing rivers found in the northern mountainous regions of South America, primarily in Colombia, Peru and Brazil. The Zebra Shovelnose has a flat nose and stream lined body, both of which are advantageous the fast flowing river habitats in which they live. Their native river habitat has very pristine water conditions and high levels of dissolved oxygen due to the fast flowing mountain waters. It is important to provide high levels of dissolved oxygen and brisk water currents in the aquarium in order to simulate this species natural habitat. Like most river species, Zebra Shovelnose Catfish are less tolerant of poor water conditions than fish species originating from lakes, ponds or flood plains. The Zebra Shovelnose is best suited for hobbyists with at least a few years experience keeping larger tropical fish species. A proper aquarium setup for housing Zebra Shovelnose should be based around a large aquarium of 180 gallons or more with plenty of open swimming area, some submerged root, smooth river rocks and a sand, fine gravel or mixed substrate. Water flow is also important as the Zebra Shovelnose (Brachyplatystoma tigrinum) is a native river species. In order to maintain the high water quality required by the Zebra Shovelnose, hobbyists should employ excellent mechanical and biological filtration along with frequent partial water changes. These partial water changes will export nitrates and other chemical buildups that occur in closed loop aquarium systems. Zebra Shovelnose are not overly aggressive, but will consume anything that will fit in their mouths. They do best when housed with mid to top level swimming fish species that will not compete with the Zebra Shovelnose for territory along the aquarium bottom. Lastly they should generally not be housed with other large Catfish due to the inevitable territorial battles that will occur. However, they can be kept with other catfish in very large aquariums (300 gallons or more) that are capable of providing enough territory for multiple catfish specimens. In the wild the Zebra Shovelnose feeds mostly on insects and amphibians that it takes from the river surface or near areas of overhanging or submerged tree roots. They are not picky eaters and will quickly adjust to feeding on a variety of commercial or prepared food sources. Hobbyists should feed a varied diet that consists of foods like commercial pellets/sticks, earthworms, lancefish, prawns, cockle, mussels, crickets and other similar meaty foods. It is best to feed a variety of foods in order to provide the fish a complete diet in terms of vitamins and minerals. A varied diet also helps to keep the Catfish from becoming too attached to a single food source and being reluctant to feed on other items. This of course leads to nutritional deficiencies which can lead to a weakened immune system and disease. Feed your specimens daily and as they mature begin to decrease their feedings to a few times per week based on the overall girth of the fish. Many Catfish kept in home aquariums overfeed and develop health problems due to their obesity.
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