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Tiger Shovelnose Catfish
(Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) Moderate Aggressive 40" 180 gallons 75-82° F, KH 6-20, pH 6.0-8.0 Omnivore South America Pimelodidae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller Tiger Shovelnose Catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) or as they are often affectionately known as TSN's are found throughout the larger rivers and tributaries of South America. As adults they typically stay in the larger deeper rivers where they spend much of their time along the river bottom looking for meaty foods to consume. Their attractive appearance, large size and overall interesting personality have made the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish a very popular aquarium species with hobbyist who keep larger (monster) fish species. The Tiger Shovelnose Catfish is a large catfish species that can attain a length of over 3 feet within the aquarium environment, thus require a very large aquarium as an adult. They have a long and slender body with a beautiful silver coloration along with black stripes and spots covering the entirety of the body, which gives them a tiger-like appearance. Their mouth is adorned with very long whiskers in order to seek out prey in dark or dimly lit areas, along with a long, large, flat shaped mouth which they use to inhale unsuspecting prey. While the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish is readily available within the aquarium hobby, it is not suitable for the beginner or casual aquarium hobbyist. This species gets very large and aggressive and will require a very large aquarium as an adult in order to properly housed and cared for. Therefore, the Tiger Shovelnose is only recommended for intermediate to advanced aquarium hobbyists who have larger aquariums and powerful filtration systems rated to handle larger (monster) fish species like the Tiger Shovelnose. Along with a very large aquarium and solid filtration, the Tiger Shovelnose will appreciate plenty of water flow along with some driftwood or rock formations to provide it some cover within the aquarium. The aquarium should be tightly covered with a strong weighted top, as the Tiger Shovelnose is a powerful jumper that can easily escape from an uncovered or poorly covered aquarium. Lastly, the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish needs to be kept with other large aggressive fish species that are not small enough to fit in the mouth of the TSN and have a strong enough personality to not be bullied by an adult Tiger Shovelnose Catfish. Like most larger catfish species, the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish is an opportunistic feeder that will consume a wide variety of meaty items including both fish and invertebrates. In the wild the TSN is a nocturnal hunter that preys on a variety of native fish species found throughout South America, along with any crustacean that will fit in their mouths. In the aquarium environment the Tiger Shovelnose will readily accept a wide variety of foods including: worms, catfish pellets, pellet, frozen or freeze-dried meaty food preparations, fish that will fit in their mouths and a variety of shrimp, crab or other crustaceans found in fresh water aquariums. It is best to feed them a variety of meaty foods so that they receive a wide ranging diet which helps insure that they receive a range of nutrients to promote a healthy immune system. Hobbyists should feed them daily and adjust the amount of food and frequency of feedings based on the girth of the fish and the desired growth rate.
Senegal Bichir
3 likes Bichirs
(Polypterus senegalus) Easy Semi-aggressive 18" 90 gallons 75-82° F, KH 5-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller Senegal Bichir are widely distributed across Africa, where they can be found living in a variety of slow moving shallow waters including: swamps, marshes, lakes, estuaries and small tributaries. They can grow upwards of 18 inches in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 12 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. The majority of Senegal Bichir available within the aquarium hobby are farm raised specimens that do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. Bichir have several interesting adaptations, which include a divided swim bladder and primitive lung. These adaptations the fish to take in oxygen from the air, allowing it to survive out of water for some time, provided it is kept moist. Like Ananbantoid species, they will actually drown if denied access to atmospheric air. Young bichirs even have amphibian-like external gills which are lost as the fish matures into adulthood. These adaptations along with their amphibian like behaviors of hiding during the day and hunting at night, exhibit a clear link between the modern bichir and amphibians. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Senegal Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Senegal Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length, with the height of the aquarium being less important. As a nocturnal species, the Senegal Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Senegal Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Senegal Bichir are adept at finding their way out of aquariums and onto the floor, thus a tight-fitting aquarium cover is needed. Senegal Bichir do well with other large semi-aggressive tank mates including larger South American and African Cichlids. They do not do well with aggressive Cichlids or Cichlid large enough to view the Bichir as a food item. In general, hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Senegal Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the Senegal Bichir will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Senegal Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed 1 to 2 times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Senegal Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
Albino Senegal Bichir
2 likes Bichirs
(Polypterus senegalus) Easy Semi-aggressive 18" 90 gallons 75-82° F, KH 5-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller Albino Senegal Bichir are selectively bred variants of the common Senegal Bichir. Senegal Bichir are widely distributed across Africa, where they can be found living in a variety of slow moving shallow waters including: swamps, marshes, lakes, estuaries and small tributaries. They can grow upwards of 18 inches in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 12 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. Albino Senegal Bichir are available within the aquarium hobby as farm raised specimens that do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. Bichir have several interesting adaptations, which include a divided swim bladder and primitive lung. These adaptations the fish to take in oxygen from the air, allowing it to survive out of water for some time, provided it is kept moist. Like other Ananbantoid species, they will actually drown if it is denied access to atmospheric air. Young bichirs even have amphibian-like external gills which are lost as the fish matures into adulthood. These adaptations along with their amphibian like behaviors of hiding during the day and hunting at night, exhibit a clear link between the modern bichir and amphibians. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Albino Senegal Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Albino Senegal Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length, with the height of the aquarium being less important. As a nocturnal species, the Albino Senegal Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Albino Senegal Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Albino Senegal Bichir are adept at finding their way out of aquariums and onto the floor, thus a tight-fitting aquarium cover is needed. They do well with other large semi-aggressive tank mates including larger South American and African Cichlids. They will not do well with aggressive Cichlids or Cichlid large enough to view the Bichir as a food item. In general, hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Albino Senegal Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the it will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Albino Senegal Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed 1 to 2 times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Albino Senegal Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
Ornate Bichir
2 likes Bichirs
(Polypterus ornatipinnis) Moderate Semi-aggressive 24" 90 gallons 75-84° F, KH 1-12, pH 6.5-7.5 Carnivore Central Africa Polypteridae Bichirs Large-Bottom-Dweller Ornate Bichirs are arguable one of the most attractive species of Bichir available within the aquarium hobby. An adult specimen with its unique color pattern and large size can become the center piece of the aquarium. In the wild the Ornate Bichir can be found living in the rivers, lakes, ponds and marshes of Central Africa, where they forage amongst the substrate for small fish, worms, crustaceans and similar meaty foods. They can grow upwards of 2 feet in length in the wild, but generally only grow to about 18 inches in the home aquarium. They are considered a semi-aggressive species since they will eat fish small enough to fit in their mouths, but will not bother larger fish species. The majority of Ornate Bichirs available within the aquarium hobby are wild caught specimens; however, they do very well in the aquarium environment when provided proper water conditions and aquarium size. An ideal aquarium setup for an adult Ornate Bichir will have a foot print of 6 x 2 feet or larger, a soft sandy substrate and a mixture of smooth rocks, plants and driftwood. Due to the shape of the Ornate Bichir and its swimming habits it is important to provide an aquarium with plenty of depth and length; however, the height of the aquarium can vary quite a bit as it is less important. Being a nocturnal species, the Ornate Bichir will appreciate areas of the aquarium that are either not brightly lit or are shaded by vegetation or driftwood. Proper tank mates for the Ornate Bichir should be large enough to not be considered food (anything small enough to fit in their mouth), but not so aggressive that they will harass the Bichir. Most larger semi-aggressive African Cichlids and New World Cichlids to quite well with Bichir, along with large Knife fish, other Bichir species, Synodontis and Datnoides species. Moderate to advanced hobbyists should have no trouble keeping Bichir in their home aquarium, as they are a very hardy species that has been successful in nature for millions of years. The Ornate Bichir is a carnivorous species that will consume a variety of meaty foods both in the wild and the aquarium environment. Essentially the Ornate Bichir will see any other fish or invertebrate species in the aquarium that are small enough to fit in its mouth as food. However, in order to provide them the vitamins and minerals that they need to support a healthy immune system they should not be fed a diet solely of feeder fish. A good diet for the Ornate Bichir will have a variety of meaty foods including: earthworms, prawns, mussels, raw shrimp and various types of feeder fish like silver sides and lance fish. Some Bichir have been known to accept commercial meaty pellets and wafers, but generally they do best with live or frozen foods. They should generally be fed one or two times per day an amount of food that they will consume within 5 minutes. When first added to the aquarium, Bichir are more likely to feed with the aquarium lights off or dimmed as they are a nocturnal species. Being a nocturnal species with poor vision, the Ornate Bichir has developed an excellent sense of smell which they use to locate food in low lighting conditions. Feeding them with the aquarium lights off gives them an advantage over tank mates who use eyesight as a primary method of detecting food.
Giraffe Nosed Catfish
(Auchenoglanis occidentalis) Easy Peaceful 28" 220 gallons 72-80° F, KH 5-15, pH 6.0-7.8 Omnivore Africa Bagridae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller The Giraffe Nosed Catfish is a large African catfish species that is known as a "gentle giant" because of its peaceful disposition. While their peaceful nature makes them suitable tank mates for a wide variety of other fish, their large size means they are better suited to be housed with other large peaceful to semi-aggressive tank mates. They can grow upwards of 36 inches long in the wild, but tend to reach sizes between 20 to 28 inches in length within the aquarium environment. Their natural habitat extends throughout a massive range that includes much of Africa, which means that they have learned to adapt to a variety of water conditions. This adaptability also makes the Giraffe Nosed Catfish a good aquarium species for hobbyists with very large aquariums. At over 2 feet in length and with a large body mass, the Giraffe Nosed Catfish is still a very large fish that produces a lot of bio-load for aquarium filters to process. In the wild they are found living in very large rift lakes and large river systems whose large volume of water is able to properly support large fish species. In the home aquarium it is vitally important to provide a strong filter system capable of processing both the mechanical and biological filtration needs of such a large fish. Simply put the Giraffe Nosed Catfish is a very large fish that has all of the same needs as other large bottom dwelling species. First off they need to be housed in a large aquarium that will provide them with adequate swimming areas, places to seek cover when threatened and with a sufficiently large water volume to support their filtration needs. Giraffe Nosed Catfish prefers aquarium decors with a soft sandy substrate, areas with rock piles, large pieces of drift or bog wood and plenty of open swimming areas. Their large size makes plants and tall pieces of wood or other similar aquarium decor items impractical, as the Giraffe Nosed Catfish will knock them down or move them about the aquarium with its sheer bulk. Their natural habitat tends to be in murky waters that do not have bright lighting, thus they prefer similar conditions in the home aquarium with medium to low lighting conditions and moderate to low water flow. Filtration needs to be excellent in order to keep up with the bio-load produced by such a large specimen. The aquarium should be turned over approximately 6 to 10 times per hour with a filter containing excellent mechanical and biological performance. Large canister, bead, sand or wet/dry filters are ideal filtration options as they are well suited for breaking down large amounts of fish waste. While canister, sand and wet/dry filters are efficient biological filters, they produce large amounts of nitrates that will need to be removed from the closed aquarium system. The easiest way to lower nitrate levels is to perform partial water changes, where between 20 to 30 percent of the water is changed every 2 to 4 weeks depending on the overall biological load on the aquarium. The Giraffe Nosed Catfish is not a fussy eater and will readily consume a wide variety of meaty and vegetable based foods. They should be offered a varied diet to ensure that they receive a balanced diet of vitamins and minerals needed to support a healthy immune system. They can be fed a variety of commercial foods designed for large freshwater fish species, bottom dwellers and catfish, which typically include large pellets, wafers and frozen or freeze-dried pieces. Meaty foods like shrimp, krill, feeder fish and small crustaceans will also make ideal foodstuffs for this and other large bottom dwellers. The Giraffe Nosed Catfish should typically be fed twice a day an amount that they will consume within a few minutes. While they will accept many more feedings per day, this will cause them to grow rapidly and may also adversely effect the aquarium water quality unless the filtration system is up to the task.
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Giant Raphael Catfish
(Megalodoras uranoscopus) Moderate Semi-aggressive 18" 180 gallons 72-79° F, KH 0-25, pH 5.8-7.5 Omnivore Amazon, South America Doradidae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller Giant Raphael Catfish (Megalodoras uranoscopus) are a popular northern Amazonian catfish species that are found in a variety of slow moving streams and tributaries throughout Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. They are found within the aquarium hobby under a variety of common names including: Giant Raphael Catfish, Mother of Snails, Giant Talking Catfish, Megalodoras Catfish and Megalodoras uranoscopus. The Giant Raphael Catfish is also known for its ability to produce sounds by locking its spiny pectoral fins into their sockets and grinding them against the inner portion of the socket; as well as, resonating their swim bladder through the use of a muscle attached to the back of their skull which produces a deep clicking tone. Giant Raphael Catfish are well suited for hobbyists with large aquariums, as their docile nature makes them a good tank mate for a wide variety of larger tropical fish species and Cichlid species. As with other large Catfish and Cichlid species a large aquarium is needed to properly house Giant Raphael Catfish. With an adult size of around 18 inches and a preference for schooling with other Giant Raphael Catfish, a hobbyist will need an aquarium with at least an 8 foot length and 2 foot width in order to properly house adult fish of this size. Larger fish eat larger meals and produce more waste, which means that excellent biological and mechanical filtration is required to maintain good water quality. High end canister filters or wet/dry filters are recommended for aquariums housing large Catfish and Cichlid specimens. Due to the large size and strength of the Giant Raphael Catfish, aquarium decor like plants, driftwood and root structures should be well rooted or secured to prevent them from being moved or disturbed as the Giant Raphael Cat moves about the aquarium. A sand or mix sand/gravel substrate is recommended for this species; however, an all gravel substrate or no substrate at will work as well. With its large size and protective suit of armor the Giant Raphael Catfish is capable of being housed with even the most aggressive Cichlid species. Despite this fact, the Giant Raphael Catfish is actually a very peaceful species that will not bother tank mates unless they are extremely small and seen as a food item. They prefer to live in groups and prefer an aquarium habitat with a mix of submerged root and hardy plants. Dimly lit and moderate to low water currents will further replicate their native jungle stream habitat. Overall, they are a great addition to most any tropical Amazon aquarium setup whether with Cichlids, Rays, Cichla or even larger community fish species. The Giant Raphael Catfish is both an interesting looking specimen and provides a functional addition to the aquarium environment as a substrate scavenger. An omnivorous species, the Giant Raphael Catfish requires both meaty and plant based foods in its diet in order to maintain a healthy immune system. In their natural habitat they eat mostly snails and palm fruits that fall into the water ways in which they live. However, they will quickly and easily adjust to eating a wide variety of commercial aquarium foods and foods commonly fed to other aquarium fish. It is best to provide them a mix of sinking commercial pellet foods, worms, prawns, snails, blanched vegetables and vegetable wafer foods. They will scavenge the aquarium substrate and will take food directly during feedings. Hobbyists should watch the overall girth of the fish and feed accordingly. Begin by providing direct feedings 2 to 4 times per week, then adjust the frequency of feedings based on the growth rate and girth of the fish.
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Fire Eel
1 like Eels
(Mastacembelus erythrotaenia) Moderate Semi-Aggressive 24" 55 gallons 75-82° F, KH 10-15, pH 6.8-7.2 Carnivore Southeast Asia Mastacembelidae Eels Large-Bottom-Dweller The Fire Eel is a larger freshwater eel species that originates from warm flood plains and streams of southeast Asia including: Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and Laos. Throughout their evolution, Fire Eels have developed very long laterally compressed bodies that have enabled them to better survive in their native habitat. Fire Eels are often found in streams with lots of vegetation and deep sediment filled riverbeds. The long slender snout and elongated body that particularly the rear third of which flattens into a broad caudal fin. Their shape allows them to easily bury themselves in the substrate and maneuver amongst thick vegetation while searching for food items. While Fire Eels spend much of their time on and buried in the substrate, they will swim at any water level if they detect food. In fact Fire Eels are often sought after by aquarium enthusiasts as they are easily trained to hand feed and will actively interact with the aquarium keeper once they have settled into the aquarium environment. The Fire Eel is actually a large freshwater fish and not a true eel, its name is a common name that references the fishes body shape and overall appearance. Fire Eels should be housed in larger aquariums that are capable of comfortably supporting their adult size of approximately 2 feet in length. This species can be kept in smaller aquariums as a juvenile and moved to larger enclosures as they grow and mature. It is best to keep this species in an aquarium with a fine sandy substrate, as the Fire Eel prefers to burrow into the substrate. Fire Eels will also prone to scratches and abrasions on their underside with course or rough substrate, which can cause infections and threaten the overall health of the fish. The aquarium should also contain plants or driftwood in order to provide the Fire Eel with places to seek shelter and provide them with a comfortable habitat. Fire Eels are not overly aggressive, but they should be kept with similarly sized semi-aggressive fish species as they will consume smaller fish species that will fit into their mouths. Lastly, it is very important for an aquarium housing a Fire Eel to have a fully covered and secured top as the Fire Eel is very prone to escaping from an uncovered aquarium. In the wild the Fire Eel consumes mostly insect larvae, insects, worms, small fish and some plant material. In the aquarium it is best to feed them bloodworms, tubifex worms and chopped fish or mussel as a juvenile. Adult specimens will need larger meaty food consisting of large worms, tablet foods, krill and other large fresh, freeze-dried or frozen meaty preparations.
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Crystal Eyed Catfish
(Hemibagrus wyckii) Moderate Aggressive 28" 350 gallons 72-79° F, KH 5-20, pH 6.0-7.5 Omnivore South East Asia, Indonesia & Thailand Bagridae Large Catfish Large-Bottom-Dweller Crystal Eyed Catfish (Hemibagrus wyckii) originate from the rivers and streams of South East Asia, ranging from Thailand to Indonesia. They are both an admired and feared species of catfish due to their attractive appearance and ferocious demeanor. Crystal Eyed Catfish are well known for their aggressive behavior which includes attacking and eating fish similar in size to themselves and their lack of fear towards larger predators and even human beings. Currently, Crystal Eyed Catfish are being aqua-cultured in South East Asia for both the food and aquarium markets. While they are certainly both rare and exotic within the aquarium hobby, they are available from time to time and are popular with who enjoy keeping truly "monster" fish. They are a truly beautiful species of large catfish, with their sleek stream-lined bodies and dark charcoal and white coloration. However, it can not be stated enough that this species is incredibly aggressive toward other fish species and even their owners. This species is not recommended for beginning hobbyists and should usually be maintained in an aquarium by themselves unless kept by an advanced hobbyist with a very large aquarium and suitably large and aggressive tank mates. Crystal Eyed Catfish are very interesting, have strong personalities and have a definite "cool" factor to them, but with that said they are only suitable for a very select group of hobbyists with both the experience and resources to house a large hyper aggressive species as this. Hobbyists looking to keep a Crystal Eyed Catfish need to have experience dealing with large aggressive species, with this particular fish being truly the domain of the "monster" fish keeper. Best kept in a single specimen aquarium, the Crystal Eyed Catfish can reach sizes over 2 feet in length, and will need and aquarium that measures at least 8 feet by 3 feet by 3 feet or larger for an adult specimen. They prefer aquariums that are more dimly lit than the standard aquarium, with a few shaded areas of driftwood, vegetation or rocky tunnel like areas to retreat to when not swimming about the aquarium. Crystal Eyed Cats are very difficult to keep with other tank mates as smaller species will be eaten, similar sized species will be attacked and most likely eaten and even larger fish species can be attacked and killed depending on the particular specimen and aquarium setup. Advanced hobbyists with very large aquariums have succeeded in housing this species with other very large aggressive species by raising them up with larger tank mates in a very large aquarium that provides plenty of territory for all species housed. It should also be noted that Crystal Eyed Catfish (Hemibagrus wyckii) have shown aggression towards their owners and need to be watched carefully while performing tank maintenance or other times when hands and arms are placed inside the aquarium. Without a doubt, Crystal Eyed Catfish are aggressive eaters that will essentially consume any meaty food that fits in their mouths. However, not all foods contain the same level of nutrition, thus it is important to feed them a balanced diet of nutritional foods. Crystal Eyed Catfish living in the wild will make up the vast majority of their diet from eating insects, prawns, crustaceans and fish. In the home aquarium they can be fed live fish, crustaceans, worms, meaty based frozen or pellet foods ranging from krill and fish flesh to pellets specifically made for large Catfish and other large freshwater carnivores. They will also readily accept uncooked table foods like market shrimp, clams, mussels, fish fillets, chicken livers and similar meaty items.
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Large Spot Stingray
(Potamotrygon falkneri) Moderate Semi-aggressive 18" 180 gallons 75 - 84° F, pH 6.0-7.0, KH 2-10 Carnivore Amazon, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina Potamotrygonidae Stingrays Large-Bottom-Dweller The Large Spot Stingray (Potamotrygon falkneri) is a very attractive species of South American Stingray that is found in the Rio Parana and Rio Paraguay basins and surrounding flood plains. Their territory stretches from Paraguay and Brazil in the north down to Argentina in the south. Their habitat is similar to that of other Potamotrygonidae as it inhabits the sand and mud river banks, shallows, slower moving river tributaries and nearby forest flood plains during the annual wet season. It is not uncommon for the Large Spot Stingray to end up in lakes and ponds that are formed by the receding flood waters. The Large Spot Stingray is considered a peaceful species towards other large predatory fish; however, they are top level predators in their native ecosystems who will prey on any fish, invertebrate or crustacean that is small enough to be consumed as food. Large Spot Stingray are moderately difficult to keep in the home aquarium; however, if some standard rules for caring for rays are closely adhered to the Large Spot Stingray should be reasonably easy to keep. Aquariums containing rays need to have very clean water that is low in dissolved solids and allows for consistent stable water parameters with minimal fluctuations in pH & nitrates, along with ammonia and nitrite that are kept at non-detectable levels. Strong mechanical, biological and chemical filtration will need to be supplemented by regular water changes in order to keep nitrate levels consistently low. Rays eat quite a bit and are a large bodied fish that will put out a size able amount of waste for the filtration system to keep up with. Therefore, a properly running filtration system will generate a good amount of nitrates in response to the heavy bio-load. Typically frequent water changes are used to keep nitrates low, but other methods like nitrate removing aquatic vegetation within a sump can also be used in conjunction with water changes to keep nitrates low. The aquarium decor should be designed with the ray in mind, which means a soft sandy substrate and a large amount of swimming room with minimal rock, wood and plant decor. Large Spot Stingrays can sometimes be difficult to begin eating when introduced into the aquarium. In this case it is best to substantial dim or turnoff the aquarium lights, then offer earthworms or black worms to help stimulate feeding. Once feeding, Large Spot Stingrays are known to be very aggressive feeders that will consume a large variety of meaty offerings. Part of successful ray husbandry is to house them with compatible tank mates that will not harm the ray or become an unwanted food source. Any fish species small enough to be consumed by the ray will at some point be eaten. Rays generally prey on fish while they sleep, enveloping and swallowing them while they are in a semi-conscious state. Good tank mates for Rays include larger Cichlid and Central/South American fish species that are semi-aggressive in nature and large enough to not become food for the Ray. Top water fish species like Arowana and Cichla are a natural fit to be housed with Rays as they inhabit a different area of the aquarium. In their native habitat Large Spot Stingray feed mostly on small fish, worms, crustaceans and aquatic invertebrates. They are adept at rooting prey out of the substrate and at using their large oval disc to capture small fish and crustaceans. The Large Spot Stingray has a very active metabolic rate that requires they be fed multiple times per day. It is especially important to get newly added aquariums specimens eating right away to ensure that they do not suffer from lack of nutrition. Live foods work best to get newly added or picky specimens eating right away. Live worms and feeder shrimp work best to stimulate the Rays appetite. Once they are settled into the aquarium environment and feeding on earth worms and feeder shrimp, they can then be weaned onto a diet of fresh or frozen dead alternatives. Hobbyists should ideally feed Large Spot Stingray 2 to 3 small meals per day, comprised of a variety of meaty foods including: earth worms, blood worms, glass shrimp, krill, mussels, cockles, prawns, squid, chopped fresh fish and other similar items. Rays should not be fed mammal flesh like chicken livers or beef heart as they have a difficult time metabolizing these types of food and they will develop unhealthy fat buildup and possible organ degeneration.
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Motoro Stingray
(Potamotrygon Motoro) Moderate Semi-aggressive 36" 180 Gallons 75-82° F, KH 8-14, pH 5.0-6.5 Carnivore South America, Amazon River basins Potamotrygonidae Stingrays New World Cichlid Aquarium Motoro Stingray's are found living throughout South America including Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Paran-Paraguay, Orinoco, and Amazon River basins. In the wild they spend the majority of their time along the river beds in search of worms or invertebrates on which to prey. As they spend much of their time on the river or pond bottom, they have adjusted to lower light levels and will prefer lower lighting levels in their aquarium home as well. Motoro Stingray's like other rays will bury themselves within the substrate of their environment as a form of protection when they feel threatened. Therefore a substantial soft substrate should be provided to them in the aquarium in order to simulate their wild habitat. Like other stingrays, the Motoro is a high-metabolic fish that is in near constant movement and feeds many times throughout the day. This high metabolism also means that they produce a lot of waste, which requires a strong biological and chemical filtration system in order to provide them the very high quality water they need to survive and thrive within the aquarium environment. Motoro Stingray's are considered moderately difficult to keep; however, if some standard rules for caring for rays are closely adhered to the Motoro Stingray should be reasonably easy to keep. Aquariums containing rays need to have very clean water that allows for consistent stable water parameters with minimal fluctuations in pH & nitrates, along with ammonia and nitrite that are kept at non-detectable levels. Strong mechanical, biological and chemical filtration will need to be supplemented by regular water changes in order to keep nitrate levels consistently low. Rays eat quite a bit and are a large bodied fish that will put out a sizable amount of waste for the filtration system to keep up with. Therefore, a properly running filtration system will generate a good amount of nitrates in response to the heavy bio-load. Typically frequent water changes are used to keep nitrates low, but other methods like nitrate removing aquatic vegetation within a sump can also be used in conjunction with water changes to keep nitrates low. The aquarium decor should be designed with the ray in mind, which means a soft sandy substrate and a large amount of swimming room with minimal rock, wood and plant decor. Motoro Stingray's can be feed a variety of different meaty foods including: beef heart, fish flesh, earth worms, krill, blood worms, table shrimp, clams and small fish like minnows, silversides or similar feeder fish. Earthworms and invertebrates rank up very high on the Motoro's favorite foods list and is a good food choice to get them eating when first introduced to the aquarium. They can then be fed a more varied diet as they become settled within the aquarium. Any crustaceans present in the aquarium will be treated as a prey item and should only be present within a ray aquarium if intended as a food source.
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