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Khris DeCapua

Lives in South Carolina, United States
Powder Blue Cichlid
(Pseudotropheus socolofi) Easy Semi-aggressive 5" 75 gallons 75-82° F, KH 10-25, pH 7.5-8.8 Herbivore Lake Malawi Cichlidae African Cichlid Cichlid-African Native to the coastal waters of Lake Malawi near Mozambique, the Powder Blue Cichlid (Pseudotropheus socolofi) is found living just off the rocky shoreline in an area of mixed rocks and sand flats between the shore and deeper regions of the lake. They stay close to areas with rock caves and crevices on which they feed on algae and micro-crustaceans, and where they can retreat to the safety of a cave or rocky crevice if they feel threatened by large fish species. As far as mbuna species go, the Powder Blue Cichlid is by far more peaceful than most. This along with their brilliant coloration and pattern has made them a very popular species for hobbyists keeping African Cichlids. While more peaceful than most mbuna species, this species is not suitable for aquariums housing community fish or South American Cichlids. Hobbyists should aquascape the aquarium with mitigating territorial aggression in mind. Proper aquarium decor design, aquarium size and aquarium tank mates will play a crucial role in whether the Powder Blue Cichlid and its African Cichlid tank mates aggression is properly mitigated. The Aquarium Care section below covers the most effective ways to aquascape an African Cichlid tank in order to mitigate aggression and allow for keeping different species together in an African Cichlid community tank. When keeping groups of African Cichlids, they should generally be kept in aquariums of 75 gallons or larger in order to provide enough room to properly recreate their natural environment. It is important to provide plenty of rocky caves and crevices to provide the fish with hiding places, along with adequate territory and places to graze for algae growth. Most African Cichlids are pretty territorial, thus the aquarium should be decorated in such a way to provide them with enough caves and rocky formations to both establish their own territory and still have adequate swimming room. By distributing rock formations and suitable plants like Anubias all over the substrate of the aquarium with open swimming room above, the hobbyist creates distributed territory that allows for more fish to be kept in a single aquarium. If only one or two areas of the tank have well defined territories in the form of just a few rocks or plants and too much open area at the substrate level, a few dominant males will claim the limited territory and fight with the other tank mates continually. Provide plenty of rocks within the aquarium in order to create surface area for algae growth, which is a very beneficial secondary food source the Powder Blue Cichlid and other herbivores and omnivores living within the aquarium. Like many species of African Cichlids, the Powder Blue Cichlid is semi-aggressive and proper stocking and aquascaping should be well thought out to prevent severe territorial battles between aquarium inhabitants. The Powder Blue Cichlid feeds primarily on algae, plant matter and the micro crustaceans found living on the algae and plants they graze on. In the aquarium environment, hobbyists will want to feed this species a diet based on vegetable and plant matter in the form of a high quality vegetable based flake or pellet food along with naturally occurring algae growth within the aquarium. Additionally, they should be provided with blanched spinach, nori or other similar foods from time to time. While they may also consume meaty or combination flake or pellet foods designed for omnivorous African Cichlid species, the bulk of their diet should come from vegetable based foods in order for them to maintain a healthy immune system.
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Khris DeCapua
Florida Gar
4 likes Gar
(Lepisosteus platyrhincus) Moderate Semi-aggressive 34" 180 gallons 68-84° F, KH 8-20, pH 6.5-7.8 Carnivore USA, Florida, Georgia Lepisosteidae Gar Ancient-Fish Florida Gar (Lepisosteus platyrhincus) are found in both Georgia and Florida in the southeastern United States. Their natural habitat consists of streams, river drainage ditches, lowland streams, canals and lakes. They prefer calmer waters with plenty of vegetation and floating sticks and other debris. Florida Gar are typically found in areas with shallow calm water, dense vegetation and sandy or muddy substrates, as this environment is ideal for ambushing prey. Florida Gar are often confused with Spotted Gars, but are distinguishable from each other primarily by their snout length. The distance from the front of the eye to the back of the gill cover is less than 2/3 the length of the snout in the Florida Gar, while it is more than 2/3 of the length in the Spotted Gar. Also the Florida gar lacks bony scales on the throat area. The elongated snout with the nostrils located at the tip is an ideal adaption for the Florida Gar as it allows them to float motionless at the waters surface to mimic a stick floating in the water. Since they can breath with either their gills or a special lung like air bladder the gar can survive in hot, stagnant waters that might not have sufficient oxygen for most other species of fish. Florida Gar will appreciate an aquarium with a habitat similar to their native habitat. Ideally the aquarium should have low to medium water currents, plenty of vegetation and a sand or mixed sand and gravel substrate. Lighting is not critical, but they will appreciate areas of the aquarium with filtered lighting either by floating plants or tree root. Young Florida Gar can be raised up in smaller tanks like a 55 or 75 gallon and then transferred to a larger aquarium as they grow. Adult specimens living in an aquarium will reach somewhere between 24 to 36 inches in length, which means that a 180 gallon aquarium should be considered an absolute minimum tank size for this species. Ideally they should be kept in an aquarium somewhere between 300 to 450 gallons with a wide long foot print and shallow depth. The Florida Gar is not aggressive towards other large fish that it does not see as food, thus their tank mates should consist of other large fish species with a peaceful to semi-aggressive temperament. Florida Gar will most often not fair well in aquariums with very large aggressive Cichlid species like Peacock Bass, Flowerhorns or Managuense as they cannot compete with these ultra aggressive fast swimming species. In the wild young Florida Gar feed mostly on insect larvae and small fish, while adults prey on fish, crustaceans and larger insects. Florida Gar are ambush predators that will float silently near the water surface disguised as a stick or log waiting for unsuspecting prey to get too close and then they snap their head sideways and grab the prey with their sharp teeth. They will need to be fed a variety of meaty foods like fish, prawn, shrimp or crickets in the home aquarium. Hobbyists may find that it takes some time before this ambush predator will adjust to aquarium feedings, but they have strong appetites and with a little persistence should be able to adjust to aquarium life. Florida Gar have strong appetites and grow quickly; therefore, their growth rate and food intake should be monitored closely at first in order to determine the ideal amount of food and feeding frequency to keep them healthy and control their growth. A good starting point would be to feed them 2 to 3 small meals 6 days a week, while monitoring their overall girth until a feeding regime can be established. Florida gar spawn mostly during the months of April and May, but spawning occasionally lasts into the late summer months. The female spawns by distributing her adhesive eggs in shallow pools, weedy backwaters, or shallow areas near the bank river bank. The eggs are greenish-colored and are fertilized by two or more attending males. The newly hatched larva has an adhesive disc on the front of the blunt snout, which it uses to attach itself to gravel or vegetation. The larva remains attached until reaching an approximate length of about 1 inch. As a juvenile, the gar has a fragile fin that extends along the upper edge of the tail and vibrates constantly. The fin is lost during the first year of life. The young grow rapidly feeding on zooplankton and tiny crustaceans that they find in the substrate near the waters edge.
Sailfin Pleco
2 likes Plecos
(Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps) Easy Peaceful 18" 125 gallons 74-80° F, KH 6-10, pH 6.5-7.4 Omnivore Amazon, South America Loricariidae Large Plecos Large-Bottom-Dweller Sailfin Plecos (Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps) are wide spread throughout the Amazon basins many rivers, tributaries and flood plains, where it can be found scavenging for food both on the river bottom and on and around the numerous submerged trees and logs. The Sailfin Pleco is truly a "monster" fish species that reaches a very impressive 18 inches in length as an adult. While this species is not a very active swimmer, it does still require a large aquarium to give it room to move about comfortably and to support the large amount of biological waste they create. With their larger size and thick "armor" scales on their back, the Sailfin Pleco makes a great addition to aquariums containing large aggressive fish species. Ideally the home aquarium should be setup to as closely mimic the natural conditions of the Amazonian streams and flood plains of the Sailfin Plecos native habitat. They will do well in a larger aquariums with a sandy or smooth gravel substrate, larger pieces of driftwood, large rocks and some hardy plants. They will also appreciate if some of the plants, wood or rocks are positioned to create a covered or shaded area within the aquarium so that they can escape the bright aquarium lights when needed. Sailfin Plecos will eat decaying plant matter and meaty foods, but are not harmful to live plants and fish that are alive and moving. However, their large adult size can be destructive to aquariums that are heavily planted as they may uproot or damage sensitive plants when the swim around. It is for this reason that the hobbyists should take the large size of this Pleco species into consideration when designing the aquascape for an aquarium housing this species. Sailfin Plecos are not aggressive towards other species, but will squabble with one another for territory and the best feeding spots. Overall the Sailfin Pleco is a very versatile species that is well suited for a range of aquariums ranging from tropical community tanks to aquariums housing large aggressive Cichlid species. Sailfin Plecos spend their time scavenging the substrate and aquarium walls for a variety of foodstuffs ranging from algae and detritus to vegetable and plant matter, and even leftover meaty foods. They are not picky eaters and will readily accept a large range of both plant based and meaty foods. Sailfin Plecos will also consume decaying wood, plants and even fish carcasses that are left in the aquarium. However, it is best they receive a balanced nutritional diet consisting of left over flake or pellet foods, naturally occurring algae or algae wafers, sinking carnivore pellets and other various flake, freeze-dried and pellet foods that are fed to other tank mates.
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Khris DeCapua
Clown Loach
5 likes Loaches
(Chromobotia macracanthus) Moderate Peaceful 16" 75 gallons 76-86° F, KH 8-12, pH 6.0-7.5 Omnivore Indonesia, Borneo, Sumatra Cobitidae Loaches Large-Bottom-Dweller The Clown Loach is common within the aquarium trade, as it is available from most all local fish stores and online retailers. However, the Clown Loach is also a commonly misunderstood species as many hobbyists do not realize the size it attains or the natural environment that it comes from. Clown Loaches get big, easily exceeding 12 inches in length and commonly reaching upwards of 16 inches. They also prefer to live in groups both in the wild and in the aquarium, thus an aquarium with a group of 12 to 16 inch fish needs to be quite large. Secondly, Clown Loaches come from fast flowing streams and rivers that have abundant current and excellent water conditions. Many aquarium hobbyists add Clown Loaches to aquariums that do not contain much water current and with water conditions that are good, but not great. It is because of this lack of understanding of the needs of the Clown Loach that many do not do well in aquarium environments that are not well suited for their needs. However, if you have a very large aquarium with strong water flow and an efficient filtration system capable of keeping the aquarium water low in nitrate and dissolved nutrients, Clown Loaches do make an excellent aquarium species that can be kept with a wide variety of community, semi-aggressive and even most of the aggressive fish species. This species will require a larger aquarium that can accommodate their large adult size and provide them ample swimming room. Strong filtration is needed to process the large bio-loads produced by a larger fish species and to keep the water quality as pristine as possible. The substrate should ideally consist of softer material like sand or small pebbles in order not to scratch or irritate the Clown Loaches stomach as it moves about the bottom of the tank. Ideally the lighting should be somewhat subdued or at least not extremely bright as Clown Loaches are typically more active at night in the wild and often inhabit dimly lit underwater caves. Aquariums housing Clown Loaches should ideally contain some driftwood, rocky caves or low light plants to provide a natural setting and provide a sense of security for the fish if they feel threatened. Clown Loaches are sensitive to poor water conditions, very bright lighting, cooler water temperatures and large fluctuations in water temperature, all of which can cause them to become stressed and more prone to diseases like ich or other parasites. Clown Loaches will eat a wide variety of foods including scavenged meals from the aquarium substrate. However, it is best to feed younger specimens multiple smaller meals throughout the day consisting of quality foods designed for freshwater fish species or made up of items that the Clown Loach would feed on in their native habitat. Some good options commonly available to most hobbyists include: freeze-dried, flake and pellet foods made from meaty foods or plant matter, bloodworms, mosquito larvae, brine shrimp, etc; manufactured sinking wafers (algae, carnivore wafers...), fresh or blanched vegetables such as cucumber, zucchini or lightly boiled peas. Larger Clown Loaches can be slightly more picky in their eating habits and will appreciate chopped prawns or similar large meaty items fed a couple of times per day.
Red Tapajos Pike
(Crenicichla sp. Tapajos Red) Moderate Semi-aggressive 14" 180 gallons 76-84° F; pH 5.5-7.0; dH 3-20 Carnivore Rio Tapajos, Brazil, Amazon Cichlidae Pikes Cichlid-New-World Red Tapajos Pike (Crenicichla sp. Tapajos Red) are fairly new to the aquarium hobby and are not fully described at this time. They are currently categorized scientifically as , but are often sold within the hobby as Tapajos Red Pike, Red Tapajos Pike or Tapajos I Pike. They are often confused with the Cobra Pike Crenicichla sp. Tapajos II, which while similar and originating from the same region, varies in coloration and pattern. They originate from the Rio Tapajos and surrounding tributaries of the northern Brazilian Amazon. The Tapajos river runs roughly 1200 miles from the mountainous interior of the continent through the humid and hot valleys and then into the Amazon River. The large volume of the river and the deep tropical valleys that it runs through both contribute to make the water temperature of the river very stable and warm all year round. Red Tapajos Pike have become accustomed to very warm waters with excellent water quality and stable water parameters. Hobbyists looking to keep this or other Amazonian river fish species need to maintain high quality water conditions in the aquarium with low levels of nitrates and high levels of dissolved oxygen. Ideally hobbyists should house the Red Tapajos Pike in an aquarium setup that emulates their natural river habitat. Despite growing a modest 12 to 14 inches in length, the Red Tapajos Pike is a fast swimmer that requires a large aquarium that will allow them room to swim. An aquarium that is at least 6 feet long and 2 feet in width or larger is ideal, as this will give the fish room to swim and allow for enough territory for the Pike and other fish species. If housed in a smaller aquarium, the Pike is much more likely to become overly territorial and aggressive towards any tank mates. When kept in a properly sized aquarium, the Red Tapajos Pike is not considered to be overly aggressive and can be housed with other large Cichlid species that will not fit into their mouths. However, they are often aggressive towards conspecifics or other similar Pike species. Larger Cichlid species, Rays, Plecos and large Catfish make good tank mates for Red Tapajos Pike in large aquariums (180 gallons or more). Provide a sandy, small gravel or mixed sand & gravel substrate, at least one large piece of driftwood (preferably with some sort of natural cave) along with several smaller pieces, possibly some rock structure, and a decent amount of live plants ranging in size from micro to large Amazon swords. Red Tapajos Pike Cichlids can tolerate the light intensity needed for the larger plants (around 3 watts per gallon), but does prefer to have shaded areas via floating vegetation or cave-like structures of driftwood or rock. They also require excellent water conditions and tend to thrive in the higher end of their temperature threshold near 84°F; they also tend to prefer a lower pH of approximately 5.5 to 6.0. Because they are large, fast, and powerful, they require adequate open space for hunting and swimming; because of this a 125 gallon minimum tank size is recommended for a single male or one male and one female. Provide plenty of water flow via power heads or filtration returns, along with excellent biological and mechanical filtration through the use of large canister filters or wet/dry sumps. Red Tapajos Pike Cichlids will often prefer to eat only live prey when first introduced into the aquarium environment. Fish are their main food source in their natural habitat, but once in the aquarium, they learn quickly and they also learn from other fish; they can be trained to accept a few other live foods (e.g., ghost shrimp and earthworms) and may eventually be trained to accept frozen or fresh, prepared meaty foods such as chopped krill, vitamin-enriched brine shrimp, and chopped pieces of fish. Some specimens may eventually be trained to accept freeze-dried or other prepared food items, but it does not always work out. That is not too much of a problem as ghost shrimp and some of the other food items mentioned can be "gut-loaded" and vitamin-enriched in order to provide the Red Tapajos Pike with a varied and well balanced diet.
Red Belly Pacu
3 likes Pacu
(Piaractus Brachypomus) Easy Semi-aggressive 42" 500 gallons 75-85° F, pH 5.0-7.0, dH 4-10 Omnivore Amazon Basin, South America Characidae Pacu Cichlid-New-World The Red Belly Pacu is one of the largest freshwater species that can be kept in a home aquarium. Originating in the Amazon Basin of South America, this huge cousin of the Piranha grows quickly and can weigh over 50 pounds. As juveniles the Red Belly Pacu almost perfectly mimics a Red Belly Piranha for defense, but once they are large enough, not many fish species will ever bother them. Although they have special requirements (a massive aquarium with strong filtration), if those requirements are met they are easy to care for and are a very hardy and long lived (20+ years) species that is readily available from both local and online retailers. Red Belly Pacus require and aquarium of 500 gallons (preferably much larger) as they will grow large and will do it quickly; they also need to be able to turn around and are much happier in groups (and anything less than 500 gallons would unlikely support more than one specimen). They prefer a sand to fine gravel substrate with several large pieces of driftwood and rock structures for shelter as well as soft, acidic, blackwater conditions. Live plants are usually out of the question because the Red Belly Pacus will generally devour them as the main part of their diet; although it has been said that they tend to stay away from Java Moss... perhaps floating Anacharis could be a tasty treat now and then. Strong and efficient filtration is a necessity to ensure good health and clean water due to the extremely large biological load this species will have on their environment; high-end (possibly custom), external biological and mechanical filtration (e.g., a sump-style wet/dry filter) will be needed and quality chemical filtration is also recommended. Red Belly Pacus are generally a gentle, peaceful species, but they can become territorial once they are older and much larger. They can be mixed with large cichlids, South American catfish, and various large Pleco species; some compatible tank mates could be Oscars, Arowana, Lima Shovelnose Catfish, Redtail Catfish, Tiger Shovelnose Catfish, L-234 Plecos, Polka Dot Lyre Tail Plecos, Sailfin Plecos, Geophagus altifrons, and Parrot Cichlids. Ultimately, tank mates will need to be chosen wisely and should at least be over 10"-12" as adults. Red Belly Pacus are omnivorous and will pretty much eat anything, but in their natural environment they mainly eat surface and aquatic insects as well as large amounts of vegetable matter. The main part of their diet focuses on vegetable matter as well as some small fruits (aquatic plants, broccoli, romaine lettuce, strawberries, etc.), but they will also eat meaty food items such as crickets, earthworms, bloodworms, and brine shrimp; they should also be fed quality pellet foods for both carnivores and herbivores alike. A variety of the foods mentioned will keep them happy and healthy.
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Khris DeCapua
Mc Rodolph Valdez
Jardini Arowana
3 likes Arowana
(Scleropages jardini) Expert Aggressive 24" 180 gallons 76-85° F, pH 6.0-7.0, KH 2-4 Carnivore Australia, New Guinea Osteoglossidae Arowana Cichlid-New-World Indigenous to the Jardine and Adelaide Rivers of northern Australia, Jardini Arowana can be found from still billabongs to flowing streams. They are large, highly evolved, powerful predators and can be traced back millions of years without many changes (earning them the title, "living fossil"). Jardini Arowana are also known as Gulf Saratoga, and like their South American cousins, they are sometimes referred to as "water-monkeys" due to their unique predatory behavior where they will hide, stalk, and jump out of the water to ambush insects and small animals that are just passing by or hanging out on an overhanging branch or nearby vegetation. The Jardini Arowana is usually not too hard to obtain from local fish stores, but are harder to find than their Silver Arowana cousins. Although they are considered to be more elusive in the wild, they are becoming more popular in the hobby due to captive breeding programs. Jardini Arowana are a very fun fish to keep and can offer a lot of enjoyment for the advanced to expert hobbyist. They are constantly on the move, swimming around the aquarium (just under the surface) with plenty of activity. They are a true "bony tongue" species that is long and flat, with large eyes (offering them great hunting accuracy), a dark, silver-gray, stream-lined body with seven rows of large scales that tend to have pink to orange hued edges, and fins that are a darker, metallic coloration with various pink to orange spotting. As evolved predators, Silver Arowana have large, oblique mouths lined with small, sharp teeth rooted in their oral bones which include their jaws, tongue, pharynx and palate; they also possess forked barbels on the tip of their bottom jaw used for sensing disturbances on the water surface. Males have a longer anal fin and can be distinguished by their prognathous jaws, where females are usually thicker when fully mature. Jardini Arowana require an aquarium of at least 180 gallons with a sand or gravel substrate and should also be provided with driftwood (tannins in the driftwood will help maintain a lower pH) and vegetation; it's a good idea to have some free-floating plants or plants that will adhere to driftwood as some individuals do not tolerate rooted vegetation. They will also require a secure, enclosed top on their aquarium as they are powerful and notorious jumpers. Weekly 15-25% water changes should be carried out (frequency can vary depending on aquarium filtration efficiency) as Jardini Arowana are very sensitive to water chemistry. Although they can be easily bullied by larger Cichlids when they are young, once Jardini Arowana hit the 8 to 12 inch mark, they usually become extremely aggressive to all other tank inhabitants, especially those of a similar shape; tank mates should be chosen very carefully. Jardini Arowana are a solitary, aggressive, territorial species, but have, on occasion, been known to coexist with large Oscars, large Manguense, large, predatory catfish, and large plecos, but it's hit or miss and more often than not, they are eventually the only fish left in the aquarium. The Osteoglossidae family arguably contains the hardiest freshwater fish species', which don't often get sick, although they grow to be large and become messy eaters and can eventually develop health problems if their water chemistry is not properly maintained. Jardini Arowana are carnivores and should be provided with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, krill, minnows, bloodworms, blackworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, frogs, crayfish, and Cichlid/Arowana pellets or sticks. Jardini Arowana are mouth brooding, egg-layers and aquarium breeding is extremely difficult, but not impossible (a large tank of 600+ gallons would be needed). In the wild, spawning commences at the start of the wet season, where they will pair off and lay their eggs (50-200). Once fertilized, the female will keep the eggs in her mouth until they hatch. When the fry hatch they will stay with their mother for around 4-5 weeks and threatened the mother will open her mouth allowing the young to seek shelter.
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Khris DeCapua
Silver Arowana
2 likes Arowana
(Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) Expert Aggressive 40" 240 gallons 78-85° F, pH 4.5-6.8, KH 2-4 Carnivore Amazon Basin, South America Osteoglossidae Arowana Cichlid-New-World Native to both black and white water floodplains of the Amazon drainage basin in South America, the Silver Arowana can usually be found thriving in still to calm, acidic waters with plenty of vegetation. They are large, highly evolved, powerful predators and can be traced back over 150 million years without many changes (earning them the title, "living fossil"). Silver Arowana are also referred to as the "water-monkey", due to their unique predatory behavior; in addition to preying on smaller fish and invertebrates in the water, they will hide, stalk, and jump out of the water to ambush insects, birds, frogs, and small animals and amphibians that happen to be passing by or resting on an overhanging branch or nearby vegetation (adults can leap as high as 6 feet into the air). Silver Arowana are available at most fish stores and are extremely popular with the more experienced to expert hobbyists due to their "fossil" status, beautiful and unique appearance, swimming habits, and the fact that they are a true "bony tongue" species (not to mention their massive adult size and rapid growth rate). They are a long, flat, ray-finned (Actinopterygii) species with large eyes (offering them great hunting accuracy), a silvery, stream-lined body with large scales (can have pink and greenish hues), and beautiful, tapered fins that can have a pinkish hue. As evolved predators, Silver Arowana have large, oblique mouths lined with small teeth rooted in their oral bones which include their jaws, tongue, pharynx and palate; they also possess forked barbels on the tip of their bottom jaw used for sensing disturbances on the water surface. This amazing species can also obtain oxygen from air by drawing it into their swim bladder, which is lined with capillaries similar to those found in lung tissue. They are an exciting species that are constantly swimming around the aquarium, providing plenty of action and enjoyment (and they can live for 20 years!). Silver Arowana require an aquarium of at least 240 gallons (300+ gallons with at least 30 inches in width is recommended) and should be provided with a sand or gravel substrate along with driftwood (the tannins in the driftwood will keep the pH lower to help simulate blackwater conditions) and vegetation. They will also require a secure, enclosed top (weighted down depending on the size of the specimen) on their aquarium as they are powerful and notorious jumpers. Partial water changes of approximately 25% (RO water is recommended) should be carried out every week; however, more or less frequent water changes may be required depending on the overall aquarium filtration efficiency. Silver Arowana are not bullies or very aggressive, but as adults they can sometimes be aggressive towards their own species; they will eat any live fish they can fit in their massive jaws (although they tend to refrain from eating plecos) and tank mates should be considered accordingly. They have been known to do very will with Lima Shovelnose catfish, large Oscars and other large South American species, but can be harassed by large Pike Cichlids if the aquarium doesn't provide enough space. The Osteoglossidae family arguably contains the hardiest freshwater fish species' once past the juvenile stage (their first few months), which don't often get sick, although they grow to be very large and become big and messy eaters and can eventually develop health problems if their water chemistry is not properly maintained. Silver Arowana are carnivores and are not picky; they should be provided with a variety of meaty and vitamin enriched foods such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, krill, minnows, bloodworms, blackworms, mealworms, earthworms, crickets, frogs, crayfish, and Cichlid/Arowana pellets or sticks. Floating foods are mainly recommended to prevent "drop-eye" (believed to be caused by a combination of fatty food and specimens constantly looking down for their food), which seems to be the most common ailment of Silver Arowana. Although breeding is extremely rare in captivity (reported in 1000+ gallon tanks with simulated seasonal conditions), Silver Arowana are brood caring, egg-layers; at the beginning of the flood season, they will pair up and build a circular nest in the mud of the floodplains where the female will lay a small amount of eggs. Once fertilized, the male will store and protect the eggs/fry in his mouth until the juveniles yolk sacs have been fully absorbed (around 2 months).
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Khris DeCapua
Jack Dempsey
(Nandopsis octofasciatum) Easy Aggressive 12" 55 gallons 72-83° F, pH 6.5-7.5, KH 2-10 Omnivore Central America Cichlidae Jack Dempsey Cichlid-New-World Nandopsis octofasciatum, also known as the Jack Dempsey, is a colorful and extremely hardy Cichlid native to still and slow moving bogs, lakes, ponds and swamps in Central America. Jack Dempsey are one of the most popular species in the hobby and are known for their territorial instincts as well as the intense coloration they can bring to any aquarium. They have a gray to tan base color with vertical, dark striping on the body. They also have vivid, iridescent, electric blue-green and gold hues throughout, with the addition of some red outlining on the males dorsal fin. Jack Dempsey can also have (to varying intensity) black splotching on their lateral lines. Males will also grow out to be much larger than the females and will display more vivid colors. Adult Jack Dempsey require an aquarium of at least 55 gallons and should be provided with multiple places where they can find shelter like driftwood, rocky structures (especially caves), and vegetation. In addition to a good hiding place, Jack Dempsey appreciate clean, acidic to neutral water as well as areas with plants. While they can be kept with rooted plants, they are known to dig in the substrate from time to time which can cause some uprooting. Jack Dempsey are territorial and aggressive, which can lead to the weaker fish being bullies as well as the small fish being eaten. Tank mates should be considered carefully and should be comparable in size and temperament. Larger fish that swim at mid or higher levels in the aquarium and who have a different body shape make for good tank mates for the Jack Dempsey, who prefers the lower areas of the aquarium near the substrate. The Jack Dempsey is an omnivorous fish species, thus should be fed a variety of foods including both meaty and vegetable based foods. They are generally not picky eaters and will usually accept a wide variety of foods including: live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, minnows, shrimp, crickets, bloodworms, blackworms, earthworms, flake food, and Cichlid pellets. It is best to feed them a couple of times a day small amounts of food that they will consume within a few minutes. Jack Dempsey are egg layers that practice brood care. For the ideal breeding environment, the water temperature should be raised to and maintained at 84-86° F and the pH stabilized on the more acidic side. The female Jack Dempsey will lay around 650 eggs in a carefully cleaned location (driftwood, rocks, stones, slate, large plant leaves, etc). The eggs will hatch in 2-3 days and the fry should be free-swimming within a week. The newly hatched fry should be fed a diet of baby brine shrimp or crushed flake food and then moved to other foods as they mature.
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Khris DeCapua
Tiger Oscar
3 likes Oscar
(Astronotus ocellatus) Easy Semi-Aggressive 14" 75 Gallons 74-85° F, pH 5.0-7.0, KH 2-4 Omnivore South America Cichlidae Oscar New World Cichlid Aquarium The Tiger Oscar was the first, variant (selectively bred) of the original, Wild Oscar from the Amazon River basin in South America. Tiger Oscars are one of the hardiest and most popular Cichlids in the hobby and have the closest resemblance to Wild Oscars out of all the other, selectively bred Oscar variants. They are extremely intelligent and can distinguish their owner(s) from strangers as well as associate them with food; they will also develop and display unique and interesting personalities. In addition to their constant "begging" for food, they can also be trained to eat from their owner's hand; which is why they are sometimes referred to as river or water dogs. Tiger Oscars have a base color of tan to gray with varying black, tan, gray and bright orange markings on their body and fins (although their pectoral fins are usually translucent with no additional colors or markings). They also have a black, ocellus spot at the beginning of their caudal fin which is bordered in a bright orange outline. Tiger Oscars require an aquarium of at least 75 gallons and should be provided with a sand or gravel substrate and multiple places where they can find shelter (driftwood, rock structures, vegetation, etc.). Tiger Oscars are known to dig in substrate, which will cause uprooting in regard to live plants; live plants should have strong root systems, be placed in pots within the substrate, or species that will attach to and grow on driftwood and other structures should be used. Water changes (at least 25%) should be carried out every 2 weeks (or more or less frequently, depending how efficient the aquarium filtration is). Tiger Oscars are very hardy fish, but they are also big and messy eaters and eventually they will have health problems if their water chemistry is not maintained; filthy water is usually where "one-eyed" Tiger Oscars come from as well as Tiger Oscars that have developed HITH (Hole-in-the-Head) disease. Tiger Oscars are omnivorous (more accurately, facultative piscivores); they love live foods and enjoy the chase (your live plants won't), but will also readily accept many other foods. Tiger Oscars require vitamin C and will develop health problems in its absence. Ideally, Tiger Oscars should be fed a variety of foods, such as live, frozen or freeze-dried ghost shrimp, minnows, bloodworms, blackworms, mealworms, earthworms, and crickets. To make sure they are getting enough vitamins and nutrition, Tiger Oscars should also be fed some prepared foods such as Cichlid pellets or sticks. Tiger Oscars are egg-layers that practice brood care; a breeding pair of Tiger Oscars will become very aggressive towards other tank inhabitants. Once a mated pair is established, the female Tiger Oscar will lay around 800 eggs in a carefully cleaned, flat location (driftwood, flat rocks, slate, etc.) within the aquarium. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry will be free-swimming within a week. The newly hatched fry can be fed a diet of baby brine shrimp (and crushed flake food) and moved to other foods as they mature.